Gravity, space-time, the theory of relativity - how the universe works

AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology


The book introduces a wide range of issues related to the general theory of relativity - the physics of gravity, spacetime and the laws of origin, construction and evolution of the universe and cosmic bodies.

After an initial analysis of the relationship between gravity and other physics, especially electromagnetism and special theory of relativity (in classical vector and four-dimensional tensor formulation), Einstein's general theory of relativity is discussed in detail - consequences of the principle of equivalence, physical laws in curved spacetime, gravitational field equations, specific properties of gravitational energy, origin and propagation of gravitational waves.

The chapter on geometry and topology of space-time analyzes the properties of some significant solutions of Einstein's equations, causality and global structure of space-time, horizons, asymptotic properties of different types of infinity, geometric-topological tunnels and possibilities of multiple universes, the problem of space-time singularities and other issues important for the properties of the universe and black holes.

Then the physics of black holes is discussed in detail, as the most extreme manifestation of gravitational properties - evolution of stars and gravitational collapse, black holes of static Schwarzschild and rotating Kerov-Newman, exotic phenomena around black holes, laws of dynamics and thermodynamics of black holes, quantum evaporation of black holes, astrophysical significance of black holes.

The last chapter is devoted to the relationship between gravity and the global structure of the universe - relativistic cosmology. In addition to relativistic cosmological solutions and the standard model of the universe, the relationships between microphysics and cosmology, inflationary expansion, the anthropogenic principle and the possibilities of the existence of more universes are also discussed.

Finally, the two appendices discuss Mach's principle, the quantization of the gravitational field, and the problems of unitary field theories.

The main goal of this monograph is to show readers how interesting and fundamental force gravity is, how deep its connections are with the properties of space-time and the structure of the universe, and where to look for the nature and origin of gravity.

In many places, the physical-mathematical interpretation is enlivened by passages discussing the gnoseological, philosophical and general-scientific aspects of relevant theories and findings - questions of infinity, cognition, determinism and chance or chaos, time travel, many universes, perspectives of life in universe ...

The book "Gravity, Black Holes and the Physics of Spacetime" is intended primarily for physicists working in various fields, astronomers, lecturers, students and all those more seriously interested in the theory of relativity, gravity, astrophysics, cosmology and the fundamental laws of nature.

Content :

List of symbols and designations

  1. Gravity and its place in physics
    1.1. Development of knowledge about nature, space, gravity
    1.2. Newton's law of gravitation
    1.3. Mechanical LeSage hypothesis of the nature of gravity
    1.4. Analogy between gravity and electrostatics
    1.5. Electromagnetic field. Maxwell's equations.
    1.6. Four-dimensional spacetime and special theory of relativity

  2. General theory of relativity - physics of gravity
    2.1. Acceleration and gravity from the point of view of special theory of relativity
    2.2. Versatility - a basic property and the key to understanding the nature of gravity
    2.3. The local principle of equivalence and its consequences
    2.4. Physical laws in curved spacetime
    2.5. Einstein's equations of the gravitational field
    2.6. Deviation and focus of geodesics
    2.7. Gravitational waves
    2.8. Specific properties of gravitational energy
    2.9.Geometrodynamic system of units
    2.10. Experimental verification of the theory of relativity and gravity

  3. Geometry and topology of spacetime
    3.1. Geometric-topological properties of spacetime
    3.2. Minkowski planar spacetime and asymptotic structure
    3.3. Cauchy's problem, causality and horizons
    3.4. Schwarzschild geometry
    3.5. Reissner-Nordström geometry
    3.6. Kerr and Kerr-Newman geometry
    3.7. Spatio-temporal singularities
    3.8. Hawking's and Penrose's theorems on singularities
    3.9. Naked singularities and the principle of "cosmic censorship"

  4. Black holes
    4.1. The role of gravity in the formation and evolution of stars
    4.2. The final stages of stellar evolution. Gravitational collapse. Formation of a black hole.
    4.3. Schwarzschild static black holes
    4.4. Rotating and electrically charged Kerr-Newman black holes
    4.5. The "black hole has no hair" theorem
    4.6. Laws of black hole dynamics
    4.7. Quantum radiation and thermodynamics of black holes
    4.8. Astrophysical significance of black holes
    4.9. Total gravitational collapse - the biggest catastrophe in nature

  5. Gravity and the Global Structure of the Universe:
    Relativistic Cosmology
    5.1. Basic principles and principles of cosmology
    5.2. Einstein's and deSitter's universe. Cosmological constant.
    5.3. Friedman's dynamic models of the universe
    5.4. Standard cosmological model. Big Bang. Forming the structure of the universe.
    5.5. Microphysics and cosmology. Inflationary universe.
    5.6. The future of the universe. Time arrow. Hidden matter.
    5.7. Anthropic principle and existence of multiple universes
    5.8. Cosmology and physics

Additions :

  1. Mach's principle and general theory of relativity
    A.1. Mach's principle and the origin of inertia
    A.2. Brans-Dicke's theory of gravitation
    A.3. Mach's principle and experiment; inertia anisotropy
    A.4. The status of Mach's principle in the general theory of relativity

  2. Unitary field theory and quantum gravity
    B.1. The process of unification in physics
    B.2. Einstein's visions of geometric unitary field theory
    B.3. Wheeler's geometrodynamics. Gravity and topology.
    B.4. Quantum geometrodynamics
    B.5. Gravitational field quantization
    B.6. Unification of fundamental interactions. Supergravity. Superstrings.
    B.7. General principles and perspectives of unitary field theory

Conclusion Literature Epilogue Thanks
An painting inspired by the book "Gravity, Black Holes ....."

á The actual texts of individual chapters of the book are invoked by clicking on the appropriate item in the table of content á

Author's apology:
The book was created at a time when there were no text editors yet and electronic form of information. The manuscript was transcribed into typescript, which was made into matrices from which offset printing took place.
In order to create an electronic form, it was necessary to scan the printed pages of the book into a computer, convert it using optical character recognition ( Recognita program) into alphanumeric form, correct conversion errors, process with a suitable text editor and convert to "html" format. Images had to be captured separately, processed by a graphic editor and implanted in the text. There were big problems with the formulas that fell apart during the conversion. Some formulas have so far been copied from the printed version, it will be further modified. The whole thing was very laborious and demanding!
Some new findings and concepts arose only after the writing of the manuscript of the book "Gravity, Black Holes and the Physics of Spacetime", so it was not included in the first book edition. At the ends of the relevant chapters and continuously in the text, these findings are gradually supplemented.
A number of errors may occurred during the transfer, I will gradually try to put it right - it will take some time.
Thank you for understanding , Ullmann V.

Gravity, black holes ... - "Foreword"  

Gravity, black holes and space-time physics :
Gravity in physics General theory of relativity Geometry and topology
Black holes Relativistic cosmology Unitary field theory
Anthropic principle or cosmic God
Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy

Vojtech Ullmann