Nuclear and radiation physics in research and application in techology and medicine

AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy

Atoms and atomic nuclei, nuclear and radiological physics, radioactivity, nuclear reactions and nuclear energy, elementary particles and accelerators, detection and spectrometry of ionizing radiation, application of ionizing radiation, X-ray diagnosis, radiotherapy, radioisotope scintigraphy and nuclear medicine, biological effects of radiation and radiation protection
Vojtech Ullmann

- Foreword -
1. Nuclear and radiation physics
1.0. Physics - fundamental natural science
Knowledge: experience + science . Informations - education - wisdom.
Nature and its division - microworld, macroworld, megaworld.
Methods and tools of nature study - visual observations, microscopy, spectrometry, scattering experiments, interactions and collisions of particles on accelerators, astronomical telescopes and spectrometers, detection of cosmic rays, neutrinos, gravitational waves. Powerful microscopes into matter and telescopes into the early stages of space.
Natural sciences - physics, chemistry, biology. Mathematics. Philosophy. Reductionism, analytical and synthetic method of cognition.
Methodical division of physics - experimental physics, theoretical, applied physics.
Field division of physics - mechanics, thermodynamics, electrodynamics, optics, atomic and nuclear physics.
Theoretical concepts of modern physics - theory of relativity (special and general), quantum physics .
Significant scientific discoveries - chance or method? - the role of chance and methodological procedure in the discovery of new natural laws (example of magnetic effects of electric current, X-rays, radioactivity).
"New" and "old" physics - continuity of scientific knowledge - principle of correspondence, simplicity and logical economy - Occam's razor, empirical testing and refutability of theories - Popper's criterion of falsification.
Rationality - intuition - fantasy in science - the role of rational logical analysis and intuitive detection of new unifying natural laws.
Unitarization in physics - unification of fundamental interactions - unitary field theory .
Physics - the beauty and adventure of knowledge !
1.1. Atoms and atomic nuclei
Substance, fields, particles, interactions
- basic building blocks of matter, 4 basic interactions, classical and quantum models in the microworld.

Vacuum - emptiness - nothingness? - Vacuum in classical physics and quantum field theory. Vacuum energy - true and false vacuum, its role in space.
Electromagnetic field and radiation - electric and magnetic field, determining the role of electrodynamics for the construction of matter, electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum - radio waves, infrared, visible and ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, gamma radiation.
Particle-wave dualism - corpuscular properties of waves, black body radiation, photoelectric effect, quantization - photons. Wave properties of particles, Davison-Germer experiment, origin of quantum mechanics.
Special theory of relativity - kinematic effects - time dilation, dynamic effects - dependence of mass on velocity, equivalence of mass and energy.
Quantum physics - wave functions, operators, uncertainty relations, wave equations, Schrödinger equation, discrete states, particle motion in a potential well, quantum tunneling. Permitted and prohibited crossings.
Quantum momentum - orbital and internal - spin. Magnetic moment- excitation of the magnetic field by rotations of charged particles, Bohr magneton for electrons, nuclear magneton for protons, correction g-factor, magnetic moment of proton and neutron, quark origin of magnetic moments of nucleons.
Quantum field theory - primary and secondary quantization, superposition of waves and harmonic oscillators, quantum field, new concept of force - exchange of intermediate particles, virtual and real particles. Feynman quantization of path integrals.
Some gnoseological aspects - Is the world continuous or discrete? , Cognitivity or unknowability of the world?
Unusual and paradoxical quantum effects - quantum
tunneling phenomenon , Schrodinger 's cat , quantum interconnection, teleportation, quantum computers .
Structure of atoms - molecular and atomic structure of matter, Thomson's "pudding" model of the atom, Rutheford's scattering experiment - the electron shell and the nucleus of the atom.
Planetary model of the atom - equilibrium condition, instability - contradictions with electrodynamics and spectroscopy.
Bohr's model of the atom - quantization of electron paths, Pauli's principle, occupancy and configuration of electron levels.
Radiation of atoms- excitation and deexcitation of energy levels, allowed and forbidden transitions, line and continuous spectrum, absorption and emission spectrum.
Interaction of atoms - chemical fusion of atoms - electron sharing, covalent and ionic bonding, edothermic and exothermic reactions, reaction kinetics, chemical chain reaction. Structure of molecules, bonds of atoms and molecules in substances, thermal movements of atoms and molecules.
Electromagnetic and optical properties of substances- electric charges in substances, electronic and ionic conductivity, dielectric polarization, permittivity. Magnetization of substances - magnetic permeability, diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances, permanent magnets. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in matter - velocity of electromagnetic waves in dielectric, light dispersion, refractive index and Snell's law, law of reflection, geometric optics. Piezoelectric effect, magnetostriction, thermoelectric and photoelectric effect, electroluminescence, electric discharges in gases, electrochemical phenomena.
Plasma - "4th state of matter" - formation of plasma, its electromagnetic properties, plasma oscillations.
Core construction - protons and neutrons, isotopes. Strong nuclear interaction - Yukawa potential, nature of strong interactions between quarks, residual expression between nucleons in the nucleus. Energy levels of nucleons in the nuclear potential, binding energy of atomic nuclei.
Atomic nucleus models - droplet model, statistical model, compound nucleus model, shell nucleus model.
Origin and formation of nuclei and atoms of elements - cosmic nucleogenesis - "
we are the descendants of stars!"- primordial cosmological nucleogenesis, thermonuclear reactions in stars, supernova explosion and formation of heavy elements. Relative representation of elements in space and on Earth, selection mechanisms of chemical differentiation, rare and exotic elements, extincted (disintegrated) radionuclides; helium - "element of the sun god" .
1.2. Radioactivity
The essence of radioactive transformation, the discovery of natural and artificial radioactivity, the study of radiation properties.
General laws of atomic nucleus transformation - units of radioactivity, exponential law of radioactive decay , half-life of disintegration (decay), relationship of half-life and activity, different rate and half-lives of radioactive decay, extinct (extinct) radionuclides.
Mixtures of radionuclides - decay series, radioactive equilibrium of secular and transient, radionuclide generators.
Accompanying phenomena in radioactivity - back reflection of nuclei, thermal and electrical effects of radioactivity, independence of radioactive decay from external conditions, chemical properties of radioactive substances, nascent atoms.
Alpha radioactivity - formation and properties of particles a, shift rule.
Radioactivity beta - - formation of particles b- by transmutation of quarks in neutrons, shift rule, non - preservation of parity and asymmetry of angular distribution of electrons b , continuous spectrum of radiation b , neutrino. Beta - decay into bound electronic states .
Neutrine - "ghosts" between particles - origin and types of neutrinos, oscillations of neutrinos. Difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos - helicity of neutrinos. Goldhaber's experiment.
Neutrine detectors - underground detectors (SuperKamioka NDE, SNO, KAMLAND, CNGS + OPERA, ...), submarine and glacier detectors (AMANDA, ICECUBE, ANTARES, ...). Rest mass of neutrinos, astrophysical and cosmological significance of neutrinos.
Radioactivity b + - formation of positrons in the nucleus by proton transmutation, properties of positrons, positronium, annihilation. The difference between the energy spectrum beta - and beta + .
Electron capture (EC) - combination of electron with proton, K- and L-capture. Formation of characteristic X-rays and Auger electrons during electron capture. Influence of atomic shell structure and chemical bonds on EC.
Mechanism of beta - weak interaction radioactivity , quark transmutation, intermediate bosons W
- , + , Z o .
Gamma radiation - excited nuclear levels, deexcitation of levels and radiation of photons g , properties of g radiation , energy spectrum. Angular correlations of pairs of cascade gamma-gamma photons. Rate of deexcitation and radiation g , nuclear isomerism and level metastability, pure gamma radionuclides,99mTc, radionuclide generators .
Terminological agreement : radiation g from nuclei, radiation X from packaging + braking radiation.
Internal conversion of gamma and X -rays - conversion electrons, characteristic X-rays, Auger electrons, Coster-Kronig electrons.
Combined (mixed) radioactivity - branched transformation - a mechanism, partial half-life and effective half-life, branching ratio , branched conversion of [beta- -EC], [alpha-beta - ], [alpha spontaneous fission].
"Exotic" types of radioactivity - spontaneous fission of heavy nuclei; radioactivity higher than a -helium - "cluster" radioactivity; proton and neutron radioactivity; muon, pion, hyperon radioactivity (??).
Stability and instability of nuclei - map of nuclides, binding energy of nucleons, three-dimensional table of nuclides, valley of stability, energy analysis of stability and radioactivity of nuclei.
1.3. Nuclear reactions and nuclear energy
Basic laws of nuclear reactions
- conservation laws, effective cross section of reactions, impact parameter of interaction. Nuclear "alchemy". Interaction of particles with nuclei - elastic and inelastic scattering, excitation, nuclear reactions, nuclear fission (combustion reactions), quark-gluon plasma.
Mechanisms of nuclear reactions
- direct processes, stripping and pick-up of nucleons, reactions via compound core.
Types of nuclear reactions
- reactions induced by neutrons, protons, deuterons,
and-particles, heavier ions, electrons, gamma radiation - photonuclear reactions .
High-energy collisions of heavier nuclei. Quark-gluon plasma.
Nuclear energy - binding energy of atomic nuclei, energy balance of fission of heavy nuclei and fusion of light nuclei. Two basic ways of obtaining nuclear energy - fission of heavy nuclei and fusion of light nuclei.
Radionuclide voltaic cells ("atomic" batteries) - beta-voltaic cells - direct excitation, semiconductor nuclear batteries, thermocouples.
Fission of atomic nuclei - fission nuclear reaction, role of neutrons, fission by fast and slow neutrons, fission products. Chain fission reaction and its dynamics, critical mass, explosive reaction and nuclear bomb.
Nuclear reactors - controlled chain reaction and its dynamics, multiplication factor, critical mass. Fissile materials (uranium-235, plutonium-239), preparation of fissile material, enrichment of 235-U. Generation of nuclear reactors and purposes of their use.
Construction of nuclear reactors - nuclear fuel, moderators and neutron absorption, neutron "poisons" and "poisoning" of the reactor, control and regulation of reactors. Basic types of nuclear reactors, nuclear reactors based on molten salts, moderator's self-regulating compact reactors, reactor cooling, residual heat, nuclear waste, failures and accidents of nuclear reactors.
Accident of nuclear reactors - basic causes of accidents, accidents during the chain reaction and when the reactor is shut down, examples of reactor accidents - Chernobyl, Fukushima .
Safety and risks of nuclear energy
, inherently safe reactors. Natural nuclear reactors? - (Oklo uranium mine).
Fast propagation reactors FBR with uranium-plutonium fuel cycle, thorium-uranium fuel cycle propagation reactors.
Nuclear waste - its storage and recycling.
ADTT - nuclear reactors with external neutron source, accelerator-controlled transmutation technology.
Transurans - formation, properties, lighter transurans from reactors, preparation of the heaviest transurans in accelerators. Possibilities of using transuranics.
Fusion of atomic nuclei - thermonuclear reactions, thermonuclear fusions in stars, thermonuclear explosion. Controlled thermonuclear reaction - plasma - 4th state of matter .
Conditions for positive energy yield of nuclear fusion -
Lawson's criterion .
Inertial fusion - laser reactors, inertial plasma retention, thermonuclear "micro-expansion", additional rapid ignition.
Tokamak and stellarator - magnetic plasma retention, plasma discharge, pinch effect, inductive ohmic heating, additional non-inductive heating by radio waves and neutral atomic beams.
Energy utilization of nuclear fusion - concept of thermonuclear power plant, ....
Difficulties and perspectives of thermonuclear fusion - plasma instability, thermal and radiation degradation of materials, tritium recovery, ITER tokamak, ..
Alternative possibilities of nuclear fusion - electrostatic plasma retention - fusors, polywell; muon fusion catalysis; alternative fusion reactions ....
Possibilities of obtaining energy from matter -
comparison of efficiency of chemical reactions, fission of nuclei, synthesis of nuclei, gravity, annihilation of matter with antimatter .
Energy - life - society - a little reflection on energy consumption, its acquisition and saving in human society.
1.4. Radionuclides
Natural radionuclides - primary, secondary, cosmogenic radionuclides. Decay series - thorium, uranium 238 and 235, neptunium.
Geological significance of natural radioactivity .
Radioisotope (radiometric) dating - exponential law of decay as a chronometer, basic assumptions. Radiocarbon dating method. Long-term dating of minerals - K-Ar, U-Th-Pb method, isochronous dating method, concordant dating.
Production of artificial radionuclides - nuclear reactions, efficient cross sections and dynamics of production reaction. Production of radionuclides in the reactor and in the cyclotron. Secondary radionuclides, radionuclide generators , in vivo generators in nuclear medicine .
Chemical compounds of radionuclides - chemical properties of radioactive atoms, radiochemistry, radioisotope labeling. Radioactive preparations, radioindicators, radiotherapeutics. Radiation decomposition (radiolysis) of labeled preparations.
Radionuclide decay schemes - plotting of radionuclides according to proton number and energy levels, plotting of radioactive transformations of alpha, beta -, + , EC, isomeric transitions. Branched decay schemes.
The most important radionuclides - overview and properties of the most widespread and most frequently used radionuclides, their conversion schemes, gamma spectra, methods of production, use :
Hydrogen - 1 H, deuterium 2 H - importance for nuclear physics, tritium 3 H; Helium - importance for nuclear physics (alpha-radioactivity); Lithium, Berylium, Boron - 7 Be, 10 Be, 8 Be (significance in thermonuclear fusion of helium to carbon inside stars) ; Carbon - radium carbon 14 C, 11 C; Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine - positron radionuclides; Phosphorus, Sulfur - 32 P , 33 P , 35 S ; Sodium, Potassium - 22 Na , 40 K ; Scandium - 44 Sc , 47 Sc ; Iron, Chromium - 51 Cr , 55 Fe, 59 Fe; Kobat - 60 Co , 57 Co, 58 Co; Copper, Galium, Germanium, Selenium - 64 Cu , 67 Cu , 67 Ga , 68 Ga , 68 Ge, 71 Ge, 76 Ge, 75 Se ; Rubidium-Krypton - 81 Rb, 87 Rb, krypton 81m Kr - scintigraphy of pulmonary ventilation , 81 Kr, 85 Kr ; Strontium-Yttrium - 89Sr , 90 Y , 86 Y ; Zirconium - 89 Zr ; Molybdenum-Technetium - 99 Mo, 99m Tc , Mo-Tc generator; Indium, Tin - 111 In , 113 Sn, 113m In; Iodine - radioiodine 131 I , 123 I , 125 I , 129 I , 124 I ; Cesium - 137 Cs ; Barium - 133 Ba ; Samarium - 147 Sm , 148 Sm, 153 Sm ; Europium - 152 Eu , 152m Eu, 154 Eu, 155 Eu; Gadolinium - 153 Gd ; Erbium, Yterbium, Terbium - 169 Er , 169 Yb , 149 Tb ; Lutetium - 176 Lu , 177 Lu ; Tungsten, Rhenium - 188 W, 185 Re, 186 Re , 188 Re; Iridium - 192 Ir ; Thalium - 201 Tl ; Lead, Bismuth - 210 Pb, 212 Bi, 214 Bi; Thorium, Uranium, Radium, Aktinuim, Radon - thorium 232 Th, 227 Th , uranium 235U, 238 U , radium 226 Ra and 223 Ra , actinium 225 Ac , radon 222 Rn; Transurans - plutonium 239 Pu, americium 241 Am , californium 252 Cf.
Table of the most important radionuclides - radionuclide - half-life - alpha, beta, gamma energy - method of production - use .
1.5. Elementary particles and accelerators
Are there elementary particles? ; "ball" model. "Elementary" and "composite" particles. Indistinguishability of particles.
Physical characteristics of elementary particles and quantum numbers - rest mass, lifetime,
size, dimensions and shape of particles? , electric charge, spin, parity, lepton and baryon number. Intermediate and virtual particles; why are there "exotic" particles?
Systematics of elementary particles : leptons - baryons - mesons, hadrons, fermions - bosons, strange particles.
Fermions as bosons; Superconductivity - Cooper pairs of electrons, type I and type II superconductors, superconducting electromagnets, high temperature superconductivity.
Antiparticles - antiatoms - antimatter - antisworlds - Dirac and Majoran particles, annihilation of particles with antiparticles, combined particle-antiparticle systems, antiatoms, occurrence of antimatter in space - antisworlds, antiuniverses. Antimatter production - antihydrogen, antiproton deceleration, AEGIS. Antimatter: a possible source of energy? - Leidenfrost barrier, annihilation reactor, photon rocket - critical assessment.
Interaction of elementary particles- general laws of interactions, physical fields and intermediate exchangeable particles, range of interactions. Proportion of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions, effective cross section of interaction, impact factor, central and peripheral collisions, resonant interactions, Breit-Wigner formula.
Mechanisms of interactions, exchangeable particles -
Feynman diagrams - interaction vertices, virtual and real intermediate particles, examples of Feynman diagrams in processes with electromagnetic, (electro) weak and strong interaction, use of diagrams in S-matrix of quantum field theory.
Interactions at high energies , formation of new secondary particles, cascades of interactions, electron and hadron particle sprays,
analysis of dynamics of particle interactions - Dalitz diagram, resonance of effective cross sections, energy balance.
Elementary particles and their properties - electrons and positrons, positronium, annihilation. Protons and neutrons (+ antiprotons and antineutrons), photons, neutrinos, muonsmand tauonst, mesons p and K, hyperons (L, S,X,W), bosons W + , W - , Z o . Strangeness of particles - combined pair production of K-mesons and hyperons in strong interaction, failure to preserve strangeness in decays by weak interaction.
Hypothetical and model particles - quarks, gluons, gravitons, Higgs bosons, gravitin, photin, s-particles, axions, magnetic monopolies, tachyons, leptoquarks, superstrings; mirror mass? - cathoptrons ...
Unitary symmetries and multiplets of particles - isospin, strangeness, hypercharge; Are "elementary particles" really elementary?
Quark structure of hadrons - meson and baryon multiplets. Imprisoned quarks, quark-gluon plasma - "5th state of matter" , hadronization of quarks; preony.
Four types of interactions - gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions; their properties. The role of individual interactions in the functioning of the world.
CPT symmetry of interactions - C-symmetry of charge association, P-symmetry of parity conservation and its violation in weak interactions, T-symmetry of time inversion, combined symmetries. Violation of symmetries and their cosmological consequences.
Standard model - unified understanding of elementary particles - 3 generations of fundamental quarks and leptons, quantum of carriers of interactions. Preon hypothesis .
Unitary theory of fields and elementary particles .
Charged particle accelerators - general principles of acceleration, the role of electric and magnetic fields. Space accelerators. Basic division of accelerators - small accelerators for industrial and medical use, large accelerators for research in elementary particle physics. Types of accelerated particles, linear and circular accelerators.
LWFA laser accelerators - plasma furrow wave, electron acceleration, two-stage proton acceleration.
Primary and secondary radiation from accelerators. Accelerators as sources of photon radiation. Accelerators as
neutron generators . Accelerators as synchrotron radiation generators - undulators, viglers.
Ion sources, targets, counter beams - colliders.
Linear accelerators - electrostatic and high frequency.
Circular accelerators - cyclotron , synchrotron , betatron , microtron.
Electrical supply of accelerators - power supply of accelerating electrodes, ion source, electromagnets, vacuum and cooling systems, control and regulation electronics.
High frequency generators - magnetron , two-circuit and reflective klystron ; gyrotron .
Electromagnets in accelerators- shaping the path of charged particles, dipole and quadrupole electromagnets. Superconducting electromagnets - superconducting materials, continuous and persistent mode of superconducting magnets, switching on and off of superconducting current, temperature controlled superconducting keying, quench of superconducting electromagnet, use of superconducting magnets.
Large accelerators - Large Hadron Collider LHC - detection systems ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, LHCb.
Conceptual perspectives of large accelerators - synchrotron radiation; Circular or linear accelerators ?; Proton or electron accelerators ?; Space accelerators ?
1.6. Ionizing radiation
Radiation as an important natural phenomenon
- wave propagation and particle motion, vacuum and material environment, absorption and scattering of radiation, secondary radiation, changes in spectral composition. Transmission of information by radiation, energy and the effects of radiation on matter. Electronics - optoelectronics - photonics.
Definitions and types of ionizing radiation
- direct and indirect ionizing radiation, wave and corpuscular radiation. Photon X and gamma radiation, alpha and beta radiation, less common and "exotic" types of radiation - neutron, proton, heavier nuclei, muon and pion radiation, antiproton, neutrino radiation.
Physics of ionizing radiation
- radiation physics, radiological physics, dosimetry, radiobiology, use of radiation in diagnostics and therapy - fields of radiology.
Sources of ionizing radiation - electronic (X-rays, accelerators, lasers), radioisotope (closed and open emitters), cosmic radiation, atmospheric electric discharges. Low-energy (kilovoltage) and high-energy (megavoltage) sources.
Physical quantities characterizing ionizing radiation - radiation energy, spectrum, radiation power and emission of the source, angular emission and directional radiation characteristics (isotropic, anisotropic).
Field and beam of radiation, radiation intensity- fluctuations of particles and energy, intensity and dose distribution, intensity of radiation from radioactive sources . Isodose curves, beam definition, collimation.
Interaction of radiation during the passage of matter - strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions of quantum radiation, effective cross section of the interaction of radiation with atoms of matter, range of radiation. Multiple interactions, electron and hadron particle sprays. Secondary radiation generated by radiation-substance interactions, albedo.
Interaction of charged particles - directly ionizing radiation- excitation and ionization, linear energy transfer, Bragg curve, permeability and range of radiation in air and matter. Elastic and inelastic radiation scattering, braking radiation, cyclotron and synchrotron radiation , photoeffect and characteristic X-rays. Interactions of b - , b + , a , proton, deuteron, heavier ions, muon radiation. Electric charging during radiation interactions.
Cherenkov radiation - mechanism of origin (polarization-depolarization, interference), spectrum and angular distribution, threshold energies, use for radiation detection.
Transient radiation - passage of charged particles through inhomogeneous media, refractive index interface, formation of transient radiation; impact transient radiation.
X-rays radiation - bremsstrahlung, formation of X-rays in X-rays, characteristic X-rays from atoms.
Interaction of gamma and X radiation - photo effect, Compton scattering, electron-positron pair formation, nuclear photo effect, Mössbauer effect of nuclear resonance fluorescence. Secondary radiation generated by g and X interactions with matter - photoelectrons, characteristic X-rays, Auger electrons, bremsstrahlung, Compton-scattered radiation, electron-positron pairs, annihilation radiation, light radiation; albedo photon radiation.
Theoretical curiosity: Is high-energy g- radiation moving slower than light? - does quantum fluctuations of spacetime feel?
Neutron radiation and its interactions - neutron sources, fast and slow neutrons, activation, neutron activation analysis.
"Visibility" of invisible ionizing radiation? - .....
Absorption of radiation in substances - exponential law of absorption, linear attenuation coefficient, connection with the effective cross section of the interaction, problems of shielding of gamma, beta and neutron radiation.
Cosmic rays
- cosmic ray spectrum, origin of cosmic rays. Propagation of cosmic radiation in space, magnetic curvature, Compton and pion interaction with relic radiation, GZK limit.
Secondary cosmic radiation
- interaction with the atmosphere, formation of cascades and sprays of particles - electron-positron, muon and hadron sprays. Cosmogenic radionuclides - radiocarbon dating method.
Cosmic radiation detection and spectrometry- detection of primary cosmic radiation, types of detectors, experiments on balloons and space satellites. Detection of secondary cosmic radiation - ground scintillation and Cherenkov detectors, detection of fluorescent radiation in the atmosphere; Pierre Auger Observatory.
Biological significance of cosmic rays - prebiotic evolution, mutations and stimulation of selective evolution; the risk of a deadly flash of cosmic rays.


2. Detection and spectrometry of ionizing radiation
2.1. Methodology of ionizing radiation detection
Basic division of ionizing radiation detectors - continuous and cumulative ionizing radiation detectors; photographic, electronic, material detectors. Electronics, optoelectronics, photonics.
Complexity of detection information - simple detectors and intensimeters, ionizing radiation spectrometers, calorimeters, imaging detectors (cameras), orbital particle detectors - trackers. Spectrometry - a powerful tool for physical knowledge and applications of radiation.
Shielding, collimation and filtration of detected radiation , mechanical and electronic collimation.
Arrangement and configuration of radiation detectors - one detector, multi-detector systems, detection systems for high-energy particle interactions, trackers, spectrometers and calorimeters.
Electronic connection and signal processing from detectors - electrical supply of the detector, shaping, sorting and summation of pulses, coincidence and anticoincidence connection of detectors, triggering, signal recording and evaluation of results
General physical and instrumental influences in detection and spectrometry- absolute and internal detection efficiency, time resolution and dead time; energy resolution, nonlinearity; scattering radiation and secondary radiation; background - from external radiation, internal radioactivity of detector material, electronic noise; temporal instabilities, aging and radiation wear of detectors. Neutron and high-energy radiation - the possibility of radiation-induced radioactivity and internal contamination of detectors.
Problems of measurement at low and high energies and radiation intensities.
2.2. Photographic detection of ionizing radiation
Photochemical reactions, latent image formation, image development and evaluation.
Film dosimeters , X-ray films.
Autoradiography - imaging principle, suitable radionuclides, macro- and micro-autoradiography, molecular analysis of molecular sequences during electrophoresis.
Thermoluminescence and photoluminescence (OSL) dosimetry - metastable excitation, thermally and optically stimulated luminescence. Luminescent archaeological dating. Heavy particle trace detectors. 3-D gel dosimeters - Radiochromic and polymerization gel dosimeters, mechanisms of action, optical-CT, NMRI and X-ray-CT evaluation of spatial dose distribution.
Particle trace detectors - nuclear photoemulsions, multilayer ECC chambers, fog and bubble chambers.
2.3. Ionization chambers
Ionization chambers
- principle of operation, use for radiation dosimetry,
well ionization activity meters . Electret detectors. Proportional detectors, drift ionization chambers, spark detectors.
Geiger-Muller detectors - principle of operation, properties (efficiency, dead time), construction of GM tubes for beta and gamma radiation, use of GM tubes.
Dead time of detectors - time resolution (dead time), non-paralyzable and paralyzable dead time, dead time measurement (two-source method, continuous change of input frequency, saturation frequency), dead time correction.
2.4. Scintillation detection and gamma-ray spectrometry
Principles of scintillation detectors - photon radiation interactions and scintillation formation, types of scintillators and their properties.
Scintillation detectors for gamma radiation - construction of scintillation crystals, planar (flat) and well crystals, optical contact with a photomultiplier.
Photomultipliers - principle of operation, construction. Photocathode - quantum and spectral sensitivity. Dynodes - design, arrangement of linear, compact circular, lamellar (louver). Continuous channel dynodes - channeltrons, multichannel plate photomultipliers MCP.
Imaging position-sensitive multianode photomultipliers PSPMT ( Position Sensitive Photomultiplier ), hybrid phototon detectors HPD ( Hybrid Photon Detector ) - simple and imaging pixels . Semiconductor "silicon" photomultipliers (SiPM - SPM - SSPM - MPPC) - avalanche photodiodes APD, Geiger mode, matrix of APD elements.
Physical properties of photomultipliers- total sensitivity, spectral sensitivity of the photocathode, linearity of the response, time constant, signal-to-noise ratio. Adverse effects of photomultipliers - dark current and noise of photomultiplier, inhomogeneity of electron collection, influence of magnetic field, "fatigue" of dynodes and photomultiplier overload.
Advantages of scintillation detectors over G.-M. detectors - detection efficiency, dead time, spectrometric properties.
Electronic connection and pulse processing of a scintillation detector- high voltage for power supply of scintillation probes, resistance divider for dynodes, single-core and multi-core connection of photomultipliers. Working resistor and isolating capacitor, pulse amplifier, pulse analyzer - integral and differential measurement, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), multichannel analyzer.
Scintillation spectra - origin and structure of the scintillation spectrum, photopeak, energy resolution, measurement efficiency, noise and background, Compton continuous spectrum, escape peaks, summation coincidence peaks, annihilation peaks.
Gamma-ray spectrometry - energy calibration, efficiency calibration, evaluation and interpretation of spectra.
Scintillators and their properties - mechanism of scintillation formation, inorganic and organic scintillators , properties of specific types of scintillators. Internal radioactivity of scintillation materials (LSO).
Cherenkov detectors - the origin of Cherenkov radiation, detection by photomultipliers, ring imaging Cherenkov detectors RICH ( Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector ).
2.5. Semiconductor detectors
Spectrometers with semiconductor detectors - types of semiconductor detectors, principle of operation. Ge (Li) detectors, gamma radiation spectrometry. Diamond detectors
Multidetector semiconductor systems - SPD semiconductor pixel detectors, strip detectors, SDD semiconductor drift detectors.
Microcalorimetric detectors - thermal effects of radiation, calorimeter, bolometer, isothermal calorimeters, cryogenic microcalorimeters. Electronic sensing of microcalorimetric response to radiation - thermistors, semiconductor elements. Bolometers operating on the edge of superconductivity TES (Transition Edge Sensor ), sensitive signal sensing with a SQUID magnetometer ( superconducting quantum interference device ).
2.6. Measurement of beta, proton and neutron radiation. Liquid scintillators.
Beta detection by G.-M. tubes and solid (plastic) scintillators. Magnetic spectrometers.
Proton radiation detection, neutron detection.
Liquid scintillators - principle of operation, types of scintillators, chemiluminescence, quenching and its correction, construction of devices. Use of liquid scintillators for measuring 14 C and 3 H.
2.7. Measurement of radioactivity of samples (in vitro)
Measurement geometry
: 2
p and 4p - geometry, positional and volume dependence of measurement efficiency, absorption and self-absorption of radiation. Detection apparatus settings.
Automatic sample series measurement - sample converters for sample series measurement.
Multi-detector systems - construction, spectrometric adjustment, correction of different detector efficiencies, function control and standardization. Hybrid systems. Advantages of multi-detector systems.
Radiochromatography - physico-chemical principle of chromatographic separation of molecules, mobile and stationary phases. Chromatogram - start, forehead and peaks of separated fractions, retardation factor and retention time. Paper, thin layer and gel chromatography. Development, detection and evaluation of the chromatogram. Radiochromatography of radioactive preparations. , molecular analysis of molecular sequences in chromatography.
Radio electrophoresis- movement of electrically charged particles in an electric field, physico-chemical principle of electrophoretic separation of molecules, molecular sieve. Gel electrophoresis -, sequence analysis of molecules in electrophoresis, densitometric and fluoroscence evaluation of electrophoreogram. Capillary electrophoresis, use for sequencing a large number of samples. Radioelectrophoresis of radioactive preparations.
Chromatography versus electrophoresis.
2.8. Absolute measurement of radioactivity and radiation intensity
Relative and absolute measurement
- primary and secondary absolute measurement. Calibration of energy and measurement efficiency. Geometric and efficiency correction factors of the detector.
Absolute coincidence methods -
b-g coincidence, g-g coincidence. Calorimetric methods, electrostatic methods. Calibration of activity meters with well ionization chamber. Calibrated meters of radiation intensity, radiation dose and dose rate.
2.9. Measurement of radioactivity in the organism (in vivo)
Whole-body and local measurements. Collimation . Absorption of radiation in the tissue, the effect of scattered radiation and suppression of its detection.
Dynamic measurements
- principles and technical implementation, the influence of dead time, advantages and disadvantages compared to dynamic scintigraphy.
Radionuclide renography- setting of the detection apparatus, concurrence of both detectors, correct collimation, registration of nephrographic curves.
Nuclear medicine - radiation-guided surgery, scintigraphy .
2.10. Calibration and quality control of radiometric instruments
Calibration of radiometric instruments - absolute, metrological, relative, working. Stability of measuring instruments - short-term and long-term,
stability testing. Measuring of energy resolution and dead time . Background control and spectrometric stability - measurement and monitoring of photopeak position stability.
2.11. Statistical variance and measurement errors
tochastic character of radioactive transformation (decay) and radiation emission - statistical fluctuations , statistical measurement error and possibilities of its influence. Influence of background , dead time (dead time non-parasitic and parasitic) and instability of the device - their minimization and correction. Total measurement error - statistical error + error caused by other influences. Accuracy and reproducibility of measurement results.


3. Applications of ionizing radiation
- nuclear and radiation methods -
3.1. Nuclear and radiation methods
Advantages and disadvantages of radiation methods, use of closed and open emitters.
Radiation measuring, analytical and therapeutic methods - absorption transmission measurements, scattering and fluorescence measurements, emission radiation measurements, measurements of radioactive samples. Radiation irradiation and technological methods, radiotherapy.
Collimation of ionizing radiation - electromagnetic collimation of charged particles, mechanical absorption collimation, types of collimators, electronic collimation of radiation. Radiography - radiation imaging- image information, display of physical fields, position sensitive detectors, display of radiation distribution.
3.2. X-rays , X-ray diagnostics
Discovery of X-rays, the basic principle of X-ray imaging.
Sources of X-rays - X-ray tubes - the origin of X-rays, braking and characteristic X-rays, wavelength and energy of X-rays, Duane-Hunt relation.
X - ray tubes design - electron focusing - focus, cooling and rotation of the anode, X-rays rotating as a whole (Straton type). X-ray power supply - high voltage, glow current, alternating voltage for anode rotation. X-ray cover, collimation system, optical localization system, structural arrangement of X-ray devices - stands, displacements, rotation, gantry.
Setting X-ray parameters - high voltage, cathode heating and anode current, collimation and X-ray filtration.
Electronic X-ray imaging - film imaging, image intensifiers, digital radiography, direct digitization - electronic flat-panels (indirect conversion - scintillator + amorphous silicon, direct conversion - pixel detectors), creation of digital X-ray image.
Planar X-ray imaging - angles and projections of X-ray imaging, sciascopy, skiagraphy, C-arm, U-arm, tilting wall.
Contrast agents - subtraction radiography, digital subtraction angiography.
Transmission X-ray tmography (CT) - principles, reconstruction, electronic X-ray detectors for CT. MDCT - multidetector, high-speed, multi-cut and spiral CT. CT with 2 X-rays - DSCT (Dual Source CT), DECT (Dual Energy CT) - differential density analysis.
Tomography electron beam - Electron Beam CT (EBT), ECG gating, advantages and disadvantages of the EBT.
Bone densitometry single-photon and two-photon - DEXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absoptiometry).
X-ray mammography - low-energy X-ray, mammary gland compression, digital mastogram, mammographic stereotaxy.
Dental X - ray - intraoral X-ray, panoramic X-ray OPG, dental CT.
Alternative diagnostic imaging methods -
ultrasound sonography , nuclear magnetic resonance , thermography , electroimpedance imaging of tissue.
Appendix: X-ray telescopes - tangential impact of X-rays on the reflecting surfaces of parabolic and hyperbolic, coaxial multi-mirror systems
3.3. Radiation measurement of mechanical properties of materials
Measurement of thickness and density
- use of radiation
b and g, measurement of transmission and scattering.
Measurement of level height. Neutron humidity measurement.
Radiation defectoscopy - non-destructive analysis of inhomogeneities, radiography by radiation sources g and X, film and electronic imaging, micro-X-rays, CT X-ray micro-tomography (mCT).
X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal lattice structure
Positron annihilation spectrometry
3.4. Radiation analytical methods of materials
X-ray fluorescence analysis - photo effect, characteristic X-rays K a , K b , sources of primary radiation, measurement and spectrometric analysis of characteristic X-rays .
Mössbauer spectroscopy - resonant nuclear absorption of g radiation, energy balance, Doppler compensation
Neutron activation analysis NAA - neutron sources - reactor and neutron generator, spectrometric analysis of gamma radiation of activated samples; instrumental INAA and radiochemical RNAA activation analysis, prompt PGNAA and delayed DGNAA gamma-neutron activation analysis. Proton and gamma-activation analysis.
Mass spectrometry - mass spectrometers and separators.
of gas concentrations - ionization fire detectors , electron capture detectors (ECD).
Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR- analytical and imaging method. Physics principle of NMR - magnetic moment of protons and other atomic nuclei, magnetic moments of nuclei in strong magnetic field, Larmor precession in magnetic field, radiofrequency excitation and relaxation, radiofrequency coils transmitting and receiving, NMR spectrometry and analysis. Proton density, relaxation times T1 and T2, nuclear resonance imaging MRI, pulse sequence in MRI ( Saturation - recovery, Spin - echo, Inversion - recovery, Gradient - echo, fluid attenuation inversion recovery FLAIR, Susceptibility weighted imaging, Diffusion weighted imaging), MRI spectrometry, functional fMRI. Physical-electronic implementation of NMRI - superconducting electromagnets, Fourier analysis, K-space.
3.5. Radioisotope tracking methods
Radioisotope tracking methods in engineering and biology.
Radioisotope scintigraphy and nuclear medicine. Radioimmunoassay
- radiosaturation analysis.
3.6. Radiotherapy
Carcinogenesis - tumorigenesis
- accumulation of multiple mutations, cell cycle deregulation, inhibition of apoptosis, cell immortilization, tumor neoangiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and metastasis.
Types of tumors - benign and malignant tumors, cellular and tissue nature of tumors - epithelial carcinomas and mesenchymal sarcomas, metastatic infiltration, TNM classification of the anatomical extent of cancer, FIGO classification (4 stages).
Diagnosis of cancer - imaging methods: X-ray diagnostics (planar and CT), ultrasound sonography, gammagraphy (planar, SPECT, PET), nuclear magnetic resonance. Endoscopy, biochemical methods, biopsies and histological examination. Primary tumor diagnostics, diagnostics for therapy planning, prediction and monitoring of biological response to tumor therapy, "molecular" imaging, early tumor response - imaging of cell apoptosis.
Cancer therapy - basic methods of cancer treatment - surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy of cancer - cytostatics alkylating, microtubule, antimetabolic, anticycline antibiotics.
Targeted biological therapy - monoclonal antibodies , tyrosine kinase inhibitors, hormonal and gene therapy, aptamers. Immunotherapy - autologous cellular immunotherapy, anti-tumor immune vaccination (immature and mature dendritic cells, their activation by tumor antigens, effector T-lymphocytes).
Alternative methods of cancer therapy - hyperthermia -
focused ultrasound HIFU ( High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound ), thermal ablation; cryotherapy (cryosurgery).
Radiotherapy - the use of biological effects of radiation for the treatment of cancer (radiation oncology), degenerative and inflammatory disorders. Curative, adjuvant, palliative radiotherapy. Tumorous cancer-lethal dose, basic radiotherapy strategies.
Combined chemo-radiotherapy - additive, radiosensitizing, antirepopulation effect. Potentiation of radiotherapy.
Physical and radiobiological factors of radiotherapy - radiosensitivity of tumor and normal tissue, therapeutic ratio. Dependence of biological effect on dose and its time distribution - linear-quadratic (LQ) model, factors " 6R " -radiosensitivity, repair, repopulation, redistribution, reoxygenation, radiation-volume effect .
Irradiation fractionation - application of LQ model, biologically equivalent dose of BED . Normofractionation, hypofractionation, hyperfractionation, accererized therapy, CHART regimen. Boost - batch increase, concomitant boost, simultaneous integrated SIB boost.
Prediction of radiotherapeutic effect - probability of cure of TCP tumor and damage of healthy tissue by NTCP , therapeutic ratio of TR, probability of uncomplicated treatment of UTCP . Time factor - the effect of cell repair and repopulation.
Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy - LQ modeling of additive, potentiation (radiosensitizing) and anti-repopulation effect.
Side effects of radiotherapy - early acute radiotoxicity, late radiotoxicity, secondary post-radiation malignancy.
Basic irradiation techniques - teletherapy, brachytherapy, radioisotope therapy.
External irradiation with gamma, X and electron radiation (teleradiotherapy) - X-ray irradiators, radioisotope gamma irradiators 137 Cs, 60 Co, irradiation with betatron and linear accelerator. Electron irradiation. Irradiation field and radiation beams, collimation, beam distribution in the beam, partial shadow.
"Make the invisible visible" - display of radiation beams - phantom images of electrons and photons using Cherenkov radiation and using a liquid scintillator, display of proton beams (with a Bragg peak) of different energies in a liquid scintillator.
Isocentric radiotherapy - gantry, irradiator rotation, portal display
Radiotherapy planning - classical and virtual simulator, CT images, 3D-planning, areas of interest (GTV, CTV, PTV), target and critical volumes, isodos curves, irradiation prescription. Irradiation plan optimization - dose-volume histograms DVH (Dose Volume Histogram).
Dosimetry and verification of radiotherapy - dosimetric phantoms, 3-D gel dosimeters, in vivo dosimetry, EPID portal dosimetry.
Modulation of irradiation beams IMRT, IGRT - flexible multilamellar MLC collimators (+ micro-MLC, binary MLC), IMRT - radiotherapy with modulated beam intensity, IGRT - image-controlled radiotherapy, con-beam CT, tomotherapy . Conformal adaptive radiotherapy, inverse planning. Hybrid integrated irradiation + imaging technologies [LINAC + CT], [LINAC + NMRI], [irradiators + PET].
Stereotactic radiotherapy SBRT (stereotactic ablative radiotherapy SABR, SABRT) - Lexell's gamma-knife , radioisotope emitters, collimation, stereotactic frame. Universal and cyber irradiators - compact LINAC, iris collimators, cybernetic arm and lounger, imaging and stereotactic aiming X-ray system, respiratory gating-synchronization; CyberKnife .
Hadron radiotherapy - Bragg curve, accelerators, proton therapy, distribution of proton beams to irradiation facilities, proton "nozzles", gantry. Radiotherapy with heavier ions - 12 C , p - mesons, antiproton radiotherapy, neutron therapy .
Nuclear reactions and gamma-monitoring of hadron radiotherapy - in-beam PET monitoring, prompt gamma-activation analysis of dose distribution along the hadron beam. Proton-boron capture therapy .
Brachyradiotherapy - temporary and permanent brachytherapy, radiation dose distribution, radioisotope sources (radiophores) for brachytherapy, their applications, aftrerloading .
Radioisotope therapy with open emitters b and a - properties of used radionuclides and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, "crossfire" effect, effect of bystander-effect and hyper-radiosensitivity. Beta and alpha radionuclides for therapy , in-vivo radionuclide generators.
Dosimetric monitoring of radionuclide therapy - determination of radiation doses in organs, MIRD method, 3D dosimetry.
Treatment of the thyroid gland with radioiodine 131 I - therapy of the ca thyroid gland, non-cancerous diseases, Marinelli's equation.
Palliative radionuclide therapy of metastases, radioactive microspheres (SIRT therapy of liver tumors), hematological therapy, radionuclide synovectomy.
Radioimmunotherapy - labeled monoclonal antibodies and mechanisms of their action, "escort" aptamers.
3.7. Technological use of radiation
Radiation chemistry - synthesis of substances, radiolysis. Radiation conservation and sterilization.
Radioactivity in discharge lamps - methods of ignition of the discharge - electronic, auxiliary ignition electrode, thermoemission of electrons, admixture of radioisotope 85-Kr into the gas charge, admixture of 232-Th oxide into the electrodes.
Ion implantation, modification of substance properties and doping of impurities ....


4. Radionuclide scintigraphy
- nuclear medicine -
4.1. Essence and types of scintigraphy
Basic principles of scintigraphic imaging. Planar and tomographic scintigraphy. Static and dynamic scintigraphy.
Motion scintigraphs - scanners. Principle of operation and construction. Focusing collimators, recording devices. Disadvantages compared to scintillation cameras.
4.2. Scintillation cameras
Principle of operation of Anger's camera

g collimation, thin large-area scintillation crystal, system of photomultipliers, comparator and generation of XY coordinate pulses, summary amplifier, analyzer and generation of trigger pulses Z, display of scintigraphic image on oscilloscope.
Analog Images - Persistent oscilloscope, analog image photography, exposure and contrast, information density, and the effect of statistical fluctuations.
Digital images - analog-to-digital converter (ADC), camera connection to a computer, digital scintigraphic cameras.
Construction arrangement of a scintillation camera - camera shielding, collimator mounting, camera stand and gantry, mechanical movements.
Collimators - construction (parallel, divergent, convergent, single-hole, special collimators "fan beam" for SPECT), energy properties, sensitivity (efficiency), spatial resolution, principles for optimal choice of collimators.
Scintigraphy in nuclear medicine - application of radioindicator, its distribution in the organism, scintigraphic images and their visual evaluation, mathematical analysis - quantitative parameters, general interpretation and diagnostics.
Adverse effects in scintigraphy and their correction - resolution, image contrast - volume and activity distortion (partial volume effect) and its correction, depth irradiation, summation effect and interference of structures, absorption (attenuation) of g radiation , statistical fluctuations and noise in images, Compton scattering. Correction methods, risk of correction artifacts.
Scintigraphic image quality and lesion detectability - object and image contrast, resolution degradation, statistical fluctuations, signal-to-noise ratio, lesion recognizability criteria. Influence of distance, attenuation, summation of layers and scattered radiation. Options for improving image quality and detectability of lesions.Quantification of positive lesions on gammagraphic images - standardized uptake value SUV (SUVmax , SUV50 , SUV70 ).
Imaging properties of the camera - internal resolution of the detector and the overall resolution of the camera FWHM , FWTM. Scintillation camera dead time. Homogeneity of the field of view - causes of inhomogeneity, control and correction of inhomogeneity, calibration of camera imaging properties. Spectrometric settings of scintillation cameras and their influence on image quality - suppression of Compton scattered radiation.
Technical failures of scintillation cameras- electrical failures of power supplies, disturbances of camera movements, failure of photomultipliers, detuning of photomultipliers, cracked scintillation crystal.
Alternative physical principles of scintillation cameras - wire cameras, multicrystalline and multipixel semiconductor cameras, Compton cameras, cameras and gamma-telescopes for high energies.
4.3. Tomographic scintigraphy
Basic principles of tomographic imaging, history of technical development of tomographic scintigraphy - movement tomography, coincidence tomography of gamma-gamma angular correlations, SPECT with patient rotation.
Tomographic scintigraphy SPECT - principle of operation of single-photon emission computed tomography, storage of tomographic studies, rotational and stationary SPECT.
Computer reconstruction of tomographic images - back projection method and iterative reconstruction, advantages and disadvantages. Sinogram , linogram - use in image reconstruction, detection and correction of motion artifacts.
Use of SPECT in nuclear cardiology, neurology, tumor diagnostics.
Adverse effects in SPECT and their correction - attenuation, inhomogeneities - ring artifacts, reconstruction artifacts - star effect, axis of rotation; correction methods.
Positron emission tomography PET - principle of positron emission tomography activity: coincidence detection ® electronic collimation of g- radiation ; true, scattering and random coincidences. Use of BGO and LSO scintillators, 2D and 3D acquisition. Internal radioactivity of LSO scintillators. Acquisition and reconstruction of tomographic images, advantages and disadvantages.
Flight time of annihilation photons TOF - time localization of the annihilation site, possibilities and perspectives of improving the time resolution of detectors and electronics.
Adverse effects in PET and their correction - absorption (attenuation) of radiation, scattering of radiation, range of positrons, random (false) coincidences.
Positron radionuclides suitable for PET, possibilities of using PET in tumor diagnostics, nuclear cardiology, CNS, in monitoring of hadron radiotherapy.

Neutron-stimulated emission computed tomography NSECT - inelastic interactions of neutrons, deexcitation of nuclei, spectrometric and gammagraphic detection of stimulated g- radiation, reconstruction and image formation of the spatial distribution of chemical elements.
4.4. Gated dynamic scintigraphy
Fast periodic events
- cardiac activity, R-wave ECG, periodicity and synchronization, composition of a phase study of a representative cycle, equilibrium ventriculography, selection and elimination of cycles. Frame mode, LIST mode, first-pass study. Gated SPECT myocardial scintigraphy.
4.5. Physical parameters of scintigraphy - image quality and phantom measurements
Spatial resolution of the gamma camera - geometric resolution of the colator, internal resolution of the camera detector, total (system) resolution, measurements with point and line source. Determining the display scale .
Homogeneity (uniformity) of the camera's field of view - measurements with a point emitter and a surface source, determination of the inhomogeneity of the field of view, calibration of homogeneity.
Linearity of the camera image - measurement with bar-phantom and linear Cartesian grid, linearity of different types of collimators.
Sensitivity (detection efficiency) scintillation cameras - geometric luminosity of colicator, internal detection efficiency, total - system - efficiency. Influence of material environment. Imaging properties of special collimators - Convergent, Pinhole.
Energy resolution and dead time of the camera detector - spectrometric properties and energy settings of the analyzer window, dead time of the camera and effective dead time of the camera + computer system, measurement by the two-sample, multi-sample and continuous activity change method.
Phantom measurements
- phantoms for static scintigraphy (thyroid, liver, ...), dynamic phantoms (eg heart), benefits of phantom measurements.
4.6. Relationship between scintigraphy and other imaging methods
Diagnostic methods: anatomical-morphological, functional-metabolic. Common features and differences between scintigraphy and other imaging modalities: X-ray imaging (conventional and CT) - link.
Ultrasound sonography - propagation of acoustic signal in tissue, acoustic impedance and echogenicity, formation of sonographic image. Doppler ultrasonography.
Nuclear magnetic resonance - physical principles, excitation of strong magnetic field and radio frequency signal, Larmor resonant frequency, relaxation times T1 and T2, gradient magnetic field, coordinate coding and tomographic image formation (NMRI).
Thermography - contact method of liquid crystals, electronic display of temperature map in infrared radiation.
Electroimpedance imaging of tissue.

Advantages, disadvantages and complementarity of individual methods. Specific role and position of nuclear medicine.
Image fusion, hybrid tomographic systems - combination of PET + CT and SPECT + CT.

4.7. Visual evaluation and mathematical analysis of diagnostic images
Getting diagnostic information from radiological images
- visual evaluation, mathematical analysis and quantification of multifactorial statistical analysis of images - pattern recognition and image of characters, statistical comparison of files of sample images .
Mathematical analysis and computer evaluation of nuclear medicine
Computer equipment nuclear medicine
Basic principles of computer operation. Types and categories of computers. Hardware and software. Peripheral devices - magnetic tape and disk memory, display, printer, data transfer between device and computer, networks. Software - operating system, programming languages. Basics of working with personal computers.
Computer processing of non-scintigraphic measurements - computer registration of results from one- and multi-detector sample meters. Basic principles of RIA evaluation. Determination of glomerular filtration by the sample method. Determination of half-life of erythrocytes and organ sequestration. ......
Computer evaluation of scintigraphic studies
Properties of evaluation devices for scintigraphy. Acquisition of scintigraphic studies - image digitization , storage matrices , display scale ("zoom"), time and pulse presets, entering data on scintigraphic studies. Acquisition of dynamic studies - preselection of frame rate , grouping of frames, start and end of the study. Synchronization of scintigraphic studies with ECG signals (gating, gating), excretion of anomalous cardiac cycles. Acquisition of SPECT studies- choice of image matrix, number and angles of projections, rotation speed, circular and elliptical rotation, correction for attenuation, correction for movement of the center of rotation, sinogram.
Scintigraphic image processing - brightness and color modulation , enlarging and reducing images, image smoothing (filters, advantages and disadvantages of filtration), composition and arithmetic operations with images, marking areas of interest (ROI) on the image and determining the ratios of local activities, correction for visual homogeneity camera field.
Basic processing of dynamic studies - display of image sequences, image composition, construction of time curves of radioactivity in ROI, dead time correction of the camera-computer system. Representation and mathematical processing of curves - smoothing, determination of the area under the curve, derivation and integration, interleaving of functions by the method of least squares (linear and exponential functions - their meaning), deconvolution analysis - transit functions and times. Parametric images - principle of construction of locally parametric images, use for functional scintigraphic studies, Fourier phase analysis(images of phase and amplitude, their evaluation, local quantification), condensed images of radioindicator movement in the field of view of the camera during dynamic scintigraphy of the swallowing act by the esophagus.
Evaluation of SPECT and PET studies - study reconstruction, creation of transverse sections and three-dimensional image, voxels, filtration, images of oblique sections.
Transmission and archiving of digital data over a network .
Filters and filtration
The essence of filtration (purpose, spatial and temporal filtration, images and curves, smoothing, focusing and reconstruction of images). Spatial filtration - smoothing, convolution, weight matrix.
Frequency domain filtering
- Fourier transform, frequency spectrum of amplitudes of harmonic functions, filter multiplication, reverse Fourier. transformation; Nyquist frequency.
SPECT back projection filtration - principle of reconstruction and formation of star artifacts, application of RAMP filter and suppression of “star effect”, smoothing filters “low pass”, focusing and combined filters, form-factors of filters and general principles for using filters.
Evaluation by complex programs
Principles of creation and use of complex programs, manual and automatic processing, presentation of images, quantitative results and their interpretation, visual evaluation and insertion of verbal data.
Mathematical analysis and complex evaluation of some typical scintigraphic studies - ventriculography , radiocardiography , myocardial scintigraphy , static and dynamic scintigraphy of the kidneys , dynamic scintigraphy of the liver (cholescintigraphy), dynamic scintigraphy of the esophagus and stomach .....
Possibilities of remote evaluation of scintigrapy - telenuclear medicine .

4.8. Radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for scintigraphic
Radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for planar and SPECT scintigraphy
- radioactive iodine
131 I, technetium 99 m Tc , radifarmaka for renal scintigraphy, cholescintigrafii, kardologické scintigraphic methods, scintigraphy of the brain, bones, lung perfusion, radioactive aerosols and gases ( 81 m Kr) for ventilation scintigraphy of the lungs.
Positron radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for PET -
18 F ( 18 FDG), 11 C, 13 N, 68 Ga, 15 O.
"Molecular imaging ", radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (
18 FDG, 18 FLT, 18 FET, ...), immunoscintigraphy, labeled cytostatics, apoptotic radiopharmaceuticals ( 99m Tc-annexin V, 18 F-ML-10) .
Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals - radiopharmaceuticals supplied manufacturers, methods of labeling radiopharmaceuticals in the workplace, radionuclide and radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals.
4.9. Clinical scintigraphic diagnostics in nuclear medicine
4.9.0. Common general principles of clinical scintigraphy
"Molecular" imaging, static and dynamic scintigraphy, hybrid imaging - functional-anatomical correlation. Time dynamics of radiolabel distribution, clearance, compartmental and deconvolution analysis. Patient preparation, time course of scintigraphic examination.
Combination of diagnostics and therapy - teragnostics - teranostic radionuclides, ................
4.9.1. Thyrological radioisotope diagnostics
Thyroid function, metabolism and iodine uptake, thyroid hormones. Pathology of the thyroid gland - hypo- and hyperthyroidism, autonomic adenoma, thyroid carcinoma (differentiated, medullary, anaplastic).
Accumulation and clearance of radioiodine in the thyroid gland.
Thyroid scintigraphy with
131 I, 123 I, 99m Tc. Scintigraphic monitoring of thyroid therapy, search for thyroid metastases. Parathyroid scintigraphy - two-phase and subtraction scintigraphy.
4.9.2. Nephrological radionuclide diagnostics
Structure and function of kidneys, glomerular and tubular function of kidneys, kidney diseases - ..
Dynamic renal scintigraphy - visual and quantitative evaluation of renal perfusion and clearance function, their drainage and urine outflow from the kidneys. Quantification of global and separated renal function, glomerular filtration, renal plasma flow. Deconvolution analysis of nephrographic curves - transit functions and renal transit times. Diuretic and captopril test.
Dynamic scintigraphy of the transplanted kidney - Hilson and Washid perfusion index, clearance function, transplant drainage, assessment of acute tubular necrosis and risk of transplant rejection.
Static scintigraphy of the kidneys - separated kidney function, corrected for depth attenuation
Radionuclide uroflowmetry and cystography - dynamics of micturition, vesico-ureteral reflux, indirect and direct cystography.
4.9.3. Diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract - liver and bile ducts, pancreas, esophagus and stomach
Dynamic scintigraphy of the liver and bile ducts ( cholescintigraphy ) - dynamic function of the liver and hepatobiliary system, bile production and outflow through intrahepatic pathways, evacuation ability of the gallbladder, duodenal reflux.
Dynamic scintigraphy of the pancreas - 75Se-selenomethionine, liver image subtraction, time course of accumulation in the pancreas, dynamics response to the application of pancreatic stimulator cholecystokinin.
Static scintigraphy of the liver. Planar and SPECT scintigraphy of hemangiomas - autologous erythrocytes labeled with
99m Tc in vitro or in vivo . Spleen scintigraphy - application of labeled autologous thermally altered erythrites.
Dynamic splenoportography - intrasplenic application of 99m Tc, evaluation of v.lienalis flow, v.portae, liver, systemic circulation. Quantification of flow dynamics, assessment of portosystemic short circuits.
Dynamic scintigraphy of the esophagus and stomach - swallowing act, evaluation of the passage of the radioindicator through the esophagus, evaluation of the curves of the dynamics of the passage of the upper, middle and lower esophagus, transport function and condensed image, assessment of gastroesophageal reflux . Evaluation of gastric and small intestine evacuation .
4.9.4. Nuclear cardiology
Heart - structure, function, central hemodynamics, ........
Radionuclide gated ventriculography
Scintigraphy of myocardial perfusion
Dynamic radiocardiography
4.9.5 Pulmonary scintigraphy (nuclear pneumology)
Structure and function of the lungs.
Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy -
99m Tc labeled albumin macroaggregates, evaluation of imaging homogeneity in the lung wings, segental defects of hypoperfusion, assessment of embolization.
Scintigraphy of pulmonary ventilation - inhalation of radioactive aerosol or radioactive inert gas (krypton
81m Kr), 81 Rb / 81m Kr generator . Regional ventilation defects, pneumoconiosis. Combined perfusion + ventilation lung scintigraphy.
4.9.6. Oncological radionuclide diagnostics
4.9.7. Skeleton scintigraphy
Bone structure, metabolic processes in the skeleton. Whole-body and local skeletal imaging with
99m Tc-phosphonates and 18 Fluoride, search for metastases, combination of SPECT / CT, PET / CT in the skeleton. Dynamic (3-phase) scintigraphy of the skeleton.
4.9.8. Scintigraphic diagnostics in neurology - CNS
Central nervous system. Brain structure -
Static scintigraphy of the brain - disruption of the blood-brain barrier.
Perfusion scintigraphy of the brain - dynamic scintigraphy (brain angiography-circulation), SPECT scintigraphy of brain perfusion
Scintigraphy of receptor systems in the brain - dopaminergic system of the brain, imaging of presynaptic and postsynaptic
Scintigraphy of cerebrospinal fluid , cisternography
4.9.9 Examination of the venous and lymphatic system - radionuclide phlebography and lymphoscintigraphy
Sentinel nodes - scintigraphy, radiation-guided surgery
4.9.10. Less significant and rarely used radionuclide examination methods
Reasons for low use and abandonment of some radionuclide methods.
Nuclear hematology
- circulating blood volume,
survival and sequestration of erythrocytes . Examination of resorption of substances in the organism - Schilling test, iron resorption. Bleeding into the GIT. Scrotal scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of the salivary glands. ........ ..........


5. Biological effects of ionizing radiation.
Radiation protection.
5.1. Effects of radiation on matter. Basic quantities of dosimetry .
Physico-chemical effects of ionizing radiation - ionization and recombination, irradiation of elements and compounds, ionization density, dissociation of molecules, formation of radicals, radiolysis of compounds.
Basic quantities of dosimetry
- absorbed dose, dose rate,
kerma and exposure,
Radiation dose from radioactivity - radioactive emitters, law of inverted squares, fluence of quanta and energy, dose constant. Distribution of radioactive substances in tissues, effective half-life, radiation dose from homogeneous distribution of radioactivity.
Radiobiological efficiency of radiation
- linear energy transfer, equivalent dose (dose equivalent), effective dose - their definition and units, measurement. Physical and biophysical dosimetric quantities.
Methods for determining radiation doses - dosimeters. Biodosimetry.
5.2. Biological effects of ionizing radiation
Cells - basic units of living organisms - cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, nucleus, DNA; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes.
DNA, RNA, proteins, chromosomes, telomeres - DNA structure, telomeres and their mitotic truncation, cell senescence, Hayflick limit of cell division, telomerase, tankyrase and cell immortilization. Cell organelles - mitochondria, lysosons, ribosomes.
Mechanisms of radiation effects on living tissue - ionization of atoms, free radicals, chemical and biochemical effects at the molecular level, effects at the subcellular and cellular level, radiobiology and radiation protection.
Basic stages of the effect of radiation on living tissue - physical, chemical and biological stages, interventional and radical theory , theory of dual radiation action.
The effect of radiation on cells - DNA and chromosome damage - single and double DNA breaks, DNA fragments, micronuclei. Genotoxicity, origin and reproduction of mutations, radiation effects during the cell cycle, stem and effector cells.
Mechanisms of cell death - apoptosis (internal and external signaling pathways, caspase chain), autophagy, senescence, entosis, cell necrosis, mitotic catastrophe. Free radicals, antioxidants, "oxygen effect".
Repair processes- nitrocellular repair (excision repair of single DNA breaks, homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joig of double breaks, erroneous mutagenic repairs), regeneration in cell populations.
Effects of radiation at the tissue level - biochemical interactions of cells, bystander effect , abscopic effect of remote extra-target induction of radiation effects in tissue. Different radiosensitivity of tissues depending on reproductive activity and degree of differentiation.
Relationship between biological effect and radiation dose :
Stochastic effects- genetic changes, malignancies. Linear-quadratic and linear threshold-free dose dependence of stochastic effects, age dependence of stochastic effects. Deterministic (non-stochastic) effects - cell killing, acute radiation sickness, local damage, threshold dose dependence.
Pathologically increased radiosensitivity - a genetic disorder of chromosomal instability.
Linear-quadratic (LQ) model of deterministic radiation effect - a and b processes , time effect of cell repair and repopulation (Lea-Cathesid dose-time integral), effect of dose rate, biological equivalent of dose BED.
Deviations from the LQ model - bystander effect, hyperradiosensitivity in the area of low doses - IndRep model of induced repair, multi-target MT model, LPL and RMR model, local effect model LEM, two-stage probability model. High- dose modifications of the LQ model - linear-quadratic-linear LQL model, generalized gLQ model, USC (universal survival curve), KN (Kavahagh-Newman) model, PLQ (Pade Linear Quadratic) model.
The issue of very low doses - are they harmful or beneficial? ; radiation hormesis and adaptive response
Time course and types of biological effects of radiation - stem cell damage, early radiation effects - acute radiation sickness and radiation dermatitis, radiation inflammation, embryo and fetal damage; late radiation effects - deterministic (non-tumor), stochastic (malignancies, genetic changes).
Local tissue and organ radiation effects - radiosensitivity of tissues and organs, functional subunits, serial and parallel organs.
Sources of radiation from ionizing radiation :
Natural sources
- radon, potassium 40, terrestrial radiation, cosmic radiation, atmospheric discharges.
Artificial sources
- medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications, nuclear technology, professional irradiation.
5.3. Purposes and methods of radiation protection
Basic objectives of radiation protection
- elimination of deterministic effects, reasonably achievable reduction of the risk of stochastic effects, optimization of radiation protection.
Principles of radiation protection - principle of justification, principle of optimization - ALARA, limitation.
Radiation protection factors - time, distance, shielding, prevention of contamination. Radiation protection a,b,g radiation. Principles of protection of workers against external radiation - dose limits , protective aids during individual work operations with ionizing radiation.
5.4. Radiation monitoring and personal dosimetry
Monitoring of workers and the working environment in workplaces with ionizing radiation.
Personal dosimetry
- types of dosimeters and their properties, organization of personal dosimetry. Dose and dose rate measurement in laboratories, examination rooms and inpatient wards. Workplace monitoring program system.
5.5. Open radionuclides. External and internal contamination
Closed radiators
- encapsulation tightness, smear leak tests.
Open emitters
- radioactive solutions, gases and aerosols. Laboratory work with open radionuclides and their storage, radioactive waste, application of radionuclides to patients. Radiation hygiene when using open emitters - protection of workers from external radiation and internal contamination .
Radioactive contamination :
Surface contamination
in workplaces - its origin, measurement, decontamination.
Internal contamination - methods of internal contamination, its measurement, determination of radiation doses in organs from internal contamination, MIRD method, 3D dosimetry.
5.6. Radiation protection at workplaces with ionizing radiation
Categories of workplaces, controlled zone, storage and disposal of radioactive waste.
Radiation accidents (crashs) - types of radiation accidents, irradiation and contamination of persons, contamination of work and environment. Accidents with open emitters - supercritical quantities, accidents at nuclear reactors (Chernobyl accidents), accidents with closed emitters.
Radioactive waste - solid, liquid, gaseous. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste.
5.7. Radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics and therapy
Radiation risk of
stochastic effects - radiation doses and radiation risks in the most common methods of X-ray diagnostics and nuclear medicine. Determination of radiation doses in X-ray diagnostics - DLP .
Determination of radiation doses in nuclear medicine - conversion coefficients .
Application of radiopharmaceuticals to children and women of reproductive age and during pregnancy - choice of activity, minimization of radiation exposure.
5.8. Legislative provision of radiation protection
Atomic Act, Monitoring program, ...... - brief links.

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This more extensive monography was created as an electronic form of lectures on nuclear and radiation physics,
radioactivity, properties of elementary particles and their acceleration, methods of ionizing radiation detection and spectrometry, radiation applications in X-ray diagnostics, radiotherapy, radioisotope scintigraphy in nuclear medicine, biological effects of radiation and physical aspects of radiation protection, held in seminars, courses and lectures at the Department of Nuclear Medicine in Ostrava.
In this treatise, I have tried to summarize the knowledge and experience gained during my more than 30 years in the field of nuclear and radiation physics. In addition to theoretical study and own considerations, these were practical applications of detection and spectrometry of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine (especially scintigraphy) and pedagogical activities - lectures on nuclear and radiation physics for students (especially from the Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, physics and radiology) and for radiation workers in postgraduate seminars and courses.
I try to conceive of nuclear and radiation processes not in isolation, but in the context of the whole natural sciences. For example, astrophysical references to nuclear reactions and particle interactions during turbulent processes in outer space, including the very origin of the universe, their role in the evolution of the universe, or their impact on life.
    Some passages are printed in petite -
they contain either a more detailed physical analysis of phenomena, or a description of the technical details of the measuring instrumentation, eventual excursions to other areas of science and technology or philosophy, to induce more general contexts. I would like to ask the reader, within their time possibilities and according to their interest, to read these passages at least briefly, as they can contribute to a more comprehensive view of the issue.
   Many details will come to add. This also applies to literary references. I wrote the individual essays basically "by heart" as I give them and on the basis of many years of experience in the field, without literary research. Further details will be added gradually.
   Overall, I tried to give a comprehensive but accessible and semi-popular interpretation of physical phenomena in the field of atoms, atomic nuclei, particles and radiation, including applications and technical principles of instrumentation , with a minimum of mathematical formulas, so that it is understandable to non-physical professionals - doctors, technicians, laboratory technicians, as well as students and others. The main emphasis is onphysical content and understanding of the nature and mechanisms of the studied phenomena. To the extent that I have succeeded, let the readers judge, I welcome comments and suggestions.
   As an author, I believe that in addition to "practical" information and factual knowledge, readers will also share the joy of knowing the hidden mechanisms in the deepest interior of matter and admiration for ingenious technical solutions of experimental and measuring nuclear devices.
Vojtech Ullmann

Syllabus: Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation
  1.0. Physics - fundamental
natural science

Back: Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation
Nuclear and radiation physics Radiation detection and spectrometry Radiation applications
With cintigraphy Computer evaluation of scintigraphy Radiation protection
Gravity, black holes and space-time physics |Anthropic principle or cosmic God
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy

Vojtech Ullmann