AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy Gravity, black holes and physics

Gravity, black holes and space-time physics


Relativistic physics, especially the general theory of relativity and relativistic astrophysics and cosmology, has experienced an impressive development in recent years, which has significantly influenced not only physics but also other natural sciences, philosophy and the depth and scope of its knowledge.

However, there is a significant gap in our professional physical literature in this area, because there is no publication that includes highly important and interesting concepts and results of modern relativistic physics.
So far, we have published only two professional publications dealing with the general theory of relativity (OTR). The book: Kuchař K .: "Fundamentals of the General Theory of Relativity" (1968) deals (albeit in great detail and erudition) with only the very basic and classical aspects of the general theory of relativityvity. The book Horský J .: "Introduction to the Theory of Relativity" (l976) is an excellent overview of both special and general theories of relativity; however, due to the small scope of the publication, modern astrophysical and cosmological aspects of OTR could only be outlined very briefly. Also in Vanýsek's textbook "Fundamentals of Astronomy and Astrophysics", this issue is mentioned only marginally, rather from an astronomical point of view.
On modern physical aspects and applications of the general theory of relativity - the relationship between gravity and the geometric-topological structure of spacetime, gravitational waves, black hole physics, unitary field theories, relativistic cosmology, anthropic principle, etc. - however, there are no sources in our professional literature *).

The presented book "Gravity, Black Holes and the Physics of Spacetime" is an attempt to (at least partially) fill this gap in our physical literature; it can in a sense be considered a continuation of the mentioned monographs by K. Kuchař and J. Horský.
The book is based on a series of lectures on the theory of relativity, black hole physics, unitary field theories, relativistic cosmology and philosophical aspects of science, which the author gave in 1978-82 for physicists, astronomers, students and others. These lectures aroused lively interest and response, and requests for syllabi
and materials for further study multiplied , as well as direct suggestions for a comprehensive book treatment of the lectured issues.

The author has taken on this difficult task in the belief that it will help good things: it will contribute to a better level of education for our physical and wider professional public, stimulate the young generation's interest in promising areas of fundamental physics and help shape an adequate and scientifically based worldview.
Interpretation of the issue with the authorhe tried to adapt it so that on the one hand he would be sufficiently exact and informative for experts (physicists) and serious interested parties, but on the other hand he should present the qualitative side of things in an accessible way. The focus is therefore on the physical nature and interpretation rather than the formal-mathematical side of things. The mathematical apparatus is used only to the extent necessary, the technical details of the proofs and derivations are often abbreviated and sometimes only indicated, with references to the relevant literature. The extent to which this approach is reasonable and how the author has succeeded should be judged by kind readers.

At the end of the book, there are two appendices ("Appendix A" on the Mach principle and "Appendix B" on unitary theories), which discuss issues closely related to the topic, but still somewhat away from the basic focus of the book.

In Ostrava-Poruba 20.10.1983 Vojtech Ullmann

*) The situation is more favorable in the popularization of some areas of this issue. J. Grygar in particular is an excellent popularizer in our country (the book "Let's Meet in Infinity", a representative pictorial publication Grygar, Horský, Mayer: "The Universe", a number of articles in popular science magazines). In addition, recently published translations polopopulárních two great works, "Astrophysics" In .Ginzburga (1979) and "The first three minutes" S.Weinberga (1983 Communal released), but discuss only some selected areas of contemporary astrophysics and cosmology. A characteristic feature of popular (and partly also semi- popular) publications is that the facts and results are usually only stated here without a more detailed physical explanation or derivation.
Newer note:
After completing the manuscript of the book "Gravity, Black Holes and the Physics of Spacetime", but before its book publication, a great popularization monograph by J. Kleczek was published: "The Universe Around Us" (Albatros, Prague 1986), which is undoubtedly one of the best works of its kind.

Gravity, black holes and space-time physics

List of the most frequently used symbols, designations and abbreviations

a acceleration; specific momentum;
radius (
curvature) of the universe
A constant; vector potential; black hole horizon area; work
b precipitation parameter
B magnetic induction
C the speed of light
C curve; convergence of geodesics
d, D distance; diameter; dimension
e number e = 2.718281 ...; electron charge; electron; eccentricity
E electric field strength; energy
f, F strong; tensor electromag. pole F ik
G metric tensor g ik
G gravitational constant; Einstein's tensor G ik
h, h Planck's constant ( h = h / 2 p ); height, depth
H magnetic field strength
I electr. current; energy stream
j current density
J momentum
k Boltzman's constant; coefficient
l, L length, distance; luminosity
m, M mass; M ¤ - mass of the Sun.
n, N number; serial number; index; neutron
O origin coordinates
p, P momentum; performance; Poynting vector; proton
q, Q electric charge
r, R radial coordinates; radius; R ik - curvature tensor; R-curvature
with spacetime interval; path
S flat; entropy
 t time
T temperature; time; T ik - energy-momentum tensor
u, U speed (u i - four-speed)
v speed
V speed; volume; potential (effective)
w, W energy density; watt power unit
x, y, z spatial coordinates,
X, Y, Z coordinate axes
a angle; coefficient; deviation; alpha particles
b, g angle; type of radiation (particles) beta, gamma
d, D variation; change; Laplace operator;
i k - Kroneker's symbol; Dirac d -function
G Christoffel coefficients of connection G i kl
E deviation; dielectric constant
h efficiency
J angle (azimuthal)
k surface gravity
l wavelength; affine parameter
m permeability; muon particles
n frequency; neutrino
x angle
p Ludolf's number; 180 ° angle; particles p -meson
h density
s areal density; effective diameter of
S sign of sum
t own time
j angle (polar); field potential
y angle; wave function
w circular frequency
W 4-dimensional space-time region
partial derivation; set boundaries
( M , g ) variety M with metric g
i, j, k,
l, m, ..
spacetime indices taking values
     0, 1, 2, 3.
a, b,
g, ...
spatial indices taking values
     1, 2, 3.
GUT grandunification theory - great unification
OTR general theory of relativity
STR special theory of relativity
Gravity, black holes, ....   1. Gravity and its place in physics

Gravity, black holes and space-time physics :
Gravity in physics General theory of relativity Geometry and topology
Black holes Relativistic cosmology Unitary field theory
Anthropic principle or cosmic God
Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy

Vojtech Ullmann