AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy Gravity, black holes and physics



In the five chapters and two appendices of this book, we took a quick walk through the world of gravity - the curved spacetime of the general theory of relativity in which our universe exists and evolves .

After a brief overview of the properties of gravitational phenomena and their connection with other natural events, especially with electromagnetism and the theory of relativity (Chapter 1), we learned the reasons that logically inevitably lead to the declaration of the gravitational field as curved spacetime - Chapter 2. We expressed the effect of gravity on physical phenomena by reformulating the physical laws for curved spacetime. We formulated Einstein's law of gravitation according to which matter excites the gravitational field (curves of spacetime), we dealt with the generation, propagation and detection of gravitational waves, we showed unusual specific properties of gravitational energy, especially its nonlocalizability. We have come to realize that the properties of space and time are not fixed and unchanging, but j sou determined by the distribution and motion of bodies - participates in the dynamics of the motion of matter,

In Chapter 3, we dealt with the general geometric and topological properties of spacetime and from this point of view we analyzed some simple exact solutions of Einstein's equations. We have stated that the causal and geometric structure of spacetime in the general theory of relativity can be considerably more complicated and varied than is considered in classical physics - areas causally separated from the rest of the world by horizons appear, singularities arise.

We then used the results of the geometric-topological analysis of the properties of spacetime in Chapter 4 devoted to the physics of black holes. Here we approached the gravity-controlled fates of stars and sketched the scenario of perhaps the most catastrophic phenomenon in nature - the complete gravitational collapse and the formation of a black hole. We analyzed the wonderful properties of black holes, as well as unusual physical phenomena in their vicinity. We discussed a deep connection physics of black holes with thermodynamics and quantum physics (quantum evaporation of black holes), analyzed the astrophysical behavior of black holes, their position in space and the possibility of astronomical observation.

In Chapter 5 on relativistic cosmology, we in the oter hand chose a completely global perspective: we explored the universe as a whole. Modern physics of gravity and spacetime - the general theory of relativity - has proven to be a reliable basis for understanding the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. We have come to realize that the universe is a dynamic object that has gone through a very dense and hot stage in the past - it began its existence with a hypothetical big bang. We discussed physical phenomena from the earliest stages of the evolution of the universe (including the possibility of a marvelous inflationary expansion), in an anthropic principle we considered the post and knowledge of life and man in the universe and the future destinies of the universe and matter in it.
The very close interrelationship of the laws of the microworld (elementary particles), macroworld, and megaworld (cosmology) has led to the philosophical conclusion that the world may be complex in detail, but these consist of a clear and simple global order.

"Appendix A" is devoted to the problems often discussed around Mach's principle and the origin of inertia. "Appendix B" then focuses on unitary field theories, whether it is older geometric unitary theories (Weyl, Einstein, Kaluz-Klein), Wheeler's geometrodynamics, or current efforts to unify fundamental interactions - Weinberg-Salam model, grandunification theory, supergravity, superstrings.

The general theory of relativity and relativistic astrophysics and cosmology are no longer purely academic areas detached from other physics and from everyday life. These areas are fully involved in the context of other physics and are developing dynamically on several levels. In addition to building an internal structure of GTR (properties of solutions to Einstein's equations, geometric-topological aspects of space, global properties of black holes and the universe and so on.) Vigorously and successfully operates in many areas of liaison general theory of relativity and other disciplines of physics.

The connection of GTR with quantum physics and elementary particle physics (quantum field theory in curved spacetime, supergravity unitary theory, quantum-gravitational phenomena in the early universe), nuclear physics, plasma physics, continuum mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical physics (relativistic theory of stellar structure, accretion disks around compact objects, formation of large-scale structure of the universe, etc.). The field of experimental GTR verification is also developing successfully ; Direct detection of gravitational waves is a particularly valuable triumph, but sophisticated experiments and observations aimed at studying the subtle effects of GTR in laboratory conditions or within the solar system are also important. Finally, it cannot be neglected nor the mutually inspiring relations between GTR and mathematics (especially differential geometry and algebraic topology) and also the philosophical and worldview impact of the findings of relativistic physics.
Research in these areas promises real adventures of knowledge that we can all look forward to!

Unitary field theory   Literature


Gravity, black holes and space-time physics :
Gravity in physics General theory of relativity Geometry and topology
Black holes Relativistic cosmology Unitary field theory
Anthropic principle or cosmic God
Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy

Vojtech Ullmann



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PMFA = Advances in Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy; UFN = Success of Physical Sciences; ŽETF = Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics

Other literature:

[290] .................
[292] .................
[293] ....... ..........
[294] Horský J., Bartoň S .: Relativistic Universe. Ando Pub., Brno 1997
[295] .................
. ............
- newer literature will appear here, which appeared only after the publication of the book "Gravity, Black Holes and the Physics of Spacetime".

Conclusion   Epilogue


Gravity, black holes and space-time physics :
Gravity in physics General theory of relativity Geometry and topology
Black holes Relativistic cosmology Unitary field theory
Anthropic principle or cosmic God
Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy

Vojtech Ullmann


E p i l o g u e

The author considers it his duty to apologize to readers and colleagues for some shortcomings, explain their causes and thank those who provided valuable assistance in the preparation and implementation of this book.

After the completion of the manuscript of the book, a very paradoxical situation arose during the negotiations on its realization: on the one hand there was a work which for the first time in our literature dealt in more detail and comprehensively with new physical aspects of relativity, gravity, properties of spacetime, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology (see "Foreword"), ie areas of interest not only experts but also and the wider educated public, which was waiting for a number of interested parties and which would certainly take care of sales on the book market. On the other hand, the relevant publishers - Academia, SNTL *), SPN, Alfa - were not willing to publish the book in the foreseeable future (except for objective reasons - capacity editorial plans - here unfortunately contributed adversity and intrigues of some colleagues, who from kind of vague "competitive", prestige or other subjective reasons, sought to prevent the publication of this book).
In the end, only improvised publication of a book through Czechoslovak astronomical society at Academy of Sciences in 1986 was realized, which was dismantled very quickly, mainly for institutes, libraries, observatories, faculties and other institutions; many other applicants remained. In 1990, we managed to make a reprint thanks to Czechoslovak scientific and technical society.
*) An abbreviated and simplified version of this book was accepted for publication by the SNTL (State Publishing House of Technical Literature) and included in the edition plan in the edition " Popular lectures on physics" for 1989. All preparatory work was carried out, including corrections, but during the print rate in the autumn of 1989 there was a political upheaval, as a result of which practically all professional publishing activities were stopped and reversed, so that in the end it was not realized ...

The main shortcomings of the book also stem from the above-mentioned difficulties (and, of course, also from errors on the part of the author) :

  1. A small number of copies (several hundred in each of the two editions - Dr. Grygar in his review recommended a circulation of at least 10,000 copies), which were dismantled mostly for scientific and professional libraries, departments, institutes, observatories. The most serious interested members of the professional public were usually no longer reached and often did not even learn about the book.
  2. Some shortcomings in the technical design of the publication. In order for the cost of producing such a large work (at a commonly used print density, the book would have more than 500 pages) not to be enormously high, it was not possible to ensure high graphic print quality. It was necessary to use large font densities and be based directly on the author's typescript, which certainly does not contribute to the graphic quality and clarity and makes it difficult to read the book. The pictures could not be redrawn professionally, so they usually only have the character of hand sketches (as the author drew them and used them in his lectures).
  3. The book was created under difficult conditions, without any help , support or fees, at the expense of the free time of the author busy with work duties in other areas. However, the moral support of the reviewers and also of several interested parties who learned about the forthcoming book was valuable . These difficult conditions (which, however, the author does not excuse for the share of his shortcomings!) Necessarily had to be reflected in terms of style and substance. The publication has not undergone the usual editorial and linguistic changes, so an increased incidence of some errors can be expectedand linguistic, factual, mathematical inconsistencies in the numbering of formulas, figures, and literature. The author had to spend the time and energy that would have to be devoted to careful proofreading and "grinding" on the technical realization of printing matrices.

The kind reader will perhaps understand that an individual without a technical and financial background, even with the best effort and dedication, cannot compete with a professional editorial and printing team. The author welcomes all comments from readers and will try to eliminate the shortcomings in case of the possibility of another (perhaps already more appropriate) edition. **)

**) Current note:
Such an edition could perhaps be partially replaced by the electronic form of the book presented here.
In the relevant notes and appendices, new findings that emerge in connection with observations, experiments and theoretical analysis will be presented and discussed on an ongoing basis.

§ Acknowledgments §

It is a nice duty of the author to thank as warmly as possible those who contributed to the realization of this book. He is mainly a colleague from Czechoslovak Astronomical Society at the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences J.Skoumal , with his collaborators J.Bušovský and L.Blochová , who dedicatedly provided polygraphic work during the printing of the book . In the Astronomical Society, they supported the release M.Vlcek and F.Kozelský. Ing.K.Peprný from Czechoslovak scientific and technical society provided significant help in reprinting the monograph .
Rare colleagues Prof.RNDr.J.Horský, DrSc. and RNDr.J.Grygar, CSc. , who undertook the book review provided many valuable suggestions, expert discussions, advice and comments (as well as encouraging words) when writing the book.


Gravity, black holes and space-time physics :
Gravity in physics General theory of relativity Geometry and topology
Black holes Relativistic cosmology Unitary field theory
Anthropic principle or cosmic God
Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy

Vojtech Ullmann