AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy | Gravity, black holes and physics |
GRAVITATION, BLACK HOLES AND PHYSICS OF SPACE
Conclusion
In the five chapters and two appendices of this book, we took a quick walk through the world of gravity - the curved spacetime of the general theory of relativity in which our universe exists and evolves .
After a brief overview of the properties of gravitational phenomena and their connection with other natural events, especially with electromagnetism and the theory of relativity (Chapter 1), we learned the reasons that logically inevitably lead to the declaration of the gravitational field as curved spacetime - Chapter 2. We expressed the effect of gravity on physical phenomena by reformulating the physical laws for curved spacetime. We formulated Einstein's law of gravitation according to which matter excites the gravitational field (curves space and s), we dealt with the generation, propagation and detection of gravitational waves, we showed unusual specific properties of gravitational energy, especially its nonlocalizability. We have come to realize that the properties of space and time are not fixed and unchanging, but j sou determined by the distribution and motion of bodies - participates in the dynamics of the motion of matter,
In Chapter 3, we dealt with the general geometric and topological properties of spacetime and from this point of view we analyzed some simple exact solutions of Einstein's equations. We have stated that the causal and geometric structure of spacetime in the general theory of relativity can be considerably more complicated and varied than is considered in classical physics - areas causally separated from the rest of the world by horizons appear, singularities arise.
We then used the results of the geometric-topological analysis of the properties of spacetime in Chapter 4 devoted to the physics of black holes. Here we approached the gravity-controlled fates of stars and sketched the scenario of perhaps the most catastrophic phenomenon in nature - the complete gravitational collapse and the formation of a black hole. We analyzed the wonderful properties of black holes, as well as unusual physical phenomena in their vicinity. We discussed a deep connection physics of black holes with thermodynamics and quantum physics (quantum á evaporation of black holes), analyzed the behavior of astrophysical black. holes, their position in space and the possibility of astronomical observation.
In Chapter 5 on
relativistic cosmology, we again chose a completely global
perspective: we explored the universe as a whole. Modern physics
of gravity and spacetime - the general theory of relativity - has
proven to be a reliable basis for understanding the structure and
evolution of the universe as a whole. We have come to realize
that the universe is a dynamic object that has gone through a
very dense and hot stage in the past - it began its existence
with a hypothetical big bang. We discussed physical phenomena
from the earliest stages of the evolution of the universe
(including the possibility of a marvelous inflationary
expansion), in an anthropic principle we considered the post and knowledge
of life and man in the universe and the future destinies of the
universe and matter in it.
The very close interrelationship of the laws of the microworld
(elementary particles), macroworld, and megaworld (cosmology) has
led to the philosophical conclusion that the world may be complex
in detail, but these consist of a clear and simple global order.
In our country, "Appendix A" is devoted to the problems often discussed around Mach's principle and the origin of inertia. "Appendix B" then focuses on unitary field theories, whether it is older geometric unitary theories (Weyl, Einstein, Kaluz-Klein), Wheeler's geometrodynamics, or current efforts to unify fundamental interactions - Weinberg-Salam model, grandunification theory, supergravity, superstrings.
The general theory of relativity and relativistic astrophysics and cosmology are no longer purely academic areas detached from other physics and from everyday life. These areas are fully involved in the context of other physics and are developing dynamically on several levels. In addition to building an internal structure r y OTR (properties of solutions to Einstein's equations, geometric-topological aspects of space, global properties of black holes and the universe and so on.) Vigorously and successfully operates in many areas of liaison general theory of relativity and other disciplines of physics.
The connection of OTR
with quantum physics and elementary particle physics (quantum
field theory in curved spacetime, supergravity unitary theory,
quantum-gravitational phenomena in the early universe), nuclear
physics, plasma physics, continuum mechanics, thermodynamics and
statistical physics (relativistic theory of stellar structure,
accretion disks around compact objects, formation of large-scale
structure of the universe, etc.). The field of experimental OTR
verification is also developing successfully ; Direct detection
of gravitational waves would be a particularly valuable triumph,
but sophisticated experiments and observations aimed at studying
the subtle effects of OTR in laboratory conditions or within the
solar system are also important. Finally, it cannot be neglected nor the
mutually inspiring relations between OTR and mathematics
(especially differential geometry and algebraic topology) and
also the philosophical and worldview impact of the findings of
relativistic physics.
Research in these areas promises real adventures of knowledge
that we can all look forward to!
Gravity, black holes and space-time physics : | ||
Gravity in physics | General theory of relativity | Geometry and topology |
Black holes | Relativistic cosmology | Unitary field theory |
Anthropic principle or cosmic God | ||
Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation | ||
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy |
GRAVITATION, BLACK HOLES AND PHYSICS OF SPACE
Literature
The following list of references does not claim to be complete. There are mainly summary works and from the original works those that are of basic importance for the issue. The reader who would like to take a deeper interest in a problem should make his / her own targeted literary research, while the above-mentioned overview and basic works can serve as a starting point and source for other literary references.
1. Abramowicz A1.A: Innermost parts of accretion discs are thermaly and secularly stable. Nature 294, 235 (1981)
2. Albrecht A., Steihardt PJ: Cosmology for
grand unified theories with radiatively induced symetry breaking.
Phys. Roar. Lett. 48, 1220 (1982)
3. Alfvén H .: Miri i antimiry. Mir, Moscow 1968
4. Anderson JL: Covariance, invariance and equivalence. Gene. Rel. Grav. 2, l6l (1971)
5. Arnovitt R., Deser S., Misner CV: The dynamics of general relativity. In: Einsteinovskij sbornik, p.233, Science, Moscow 1967
6. Astrophysics in cosmology, quantum gravity and relativity. (Proceedings of the "Centenario di Einstein"). G.Barbera, Firenze 1979 (Russian translation: Mir 1982)
7. Baade W., Zwicky F .: Supernovae and cosmic rays. Phys. Roar. 45, 138 (1934)
8. Bardeen J M., Press WM, Teukolsky SA: Rotating black holes: Locally nonrotating frames, energy extraction and scalar synchrotron radiation. Astrophys. Journ. 178, 347 (1972)
9. Bardeen JM, Carter B., Hawking SW: The four laws of black hole mechanics. Commun. Mat. Phys. 31, 161 (1973)
10. Bekenstein JD: Nonexistence of baryon number for static black holes. Phys.Rev.D5,1239,2403 (1972)
11. Bekenstein JD: Black holes and entropy. Phys. Roar. D7, 2333 (1973)
12. Bekenstein JD: Generalized second law of thermodynamics in black hole physics. Phys. Roar. D9, 3292 (1974)
13. Bekenstein JD: Statistical black-hole thermodynamics. Phys. Roar. D12, 3077 (1975)
14. Bekenstein J D., Meisels A: Einstein A and B coefficients for a black hole. Phys. Roar. D15, 2775 (1977)
15. Belinskij VA, Lifšic EM, Chalatnikov IM: Kolebatelnyj režim approximenija k osobojtočka v relativistskoj kosmologii. UFN 102, 463 [1970)
16. Bergmann O .: Scalar field theory as a theory of gravitation. Am. Journ. Phys. 24, 38 (1956)
17. Bergmann PG: Unitary field theories. Phys. Today 32, 44 (1979)
18. Birkhoff GD: Relativity and modern physics. Harward Univ. Press, Cambridge 1923
19. Bičák J .: Einstein's way to the general theory of relativity. Cs. time. Phys. A 29, 222 (1979)
[20] Blandford RD, Znajek RL: Electromagnetic extraction of
energy from Kerr black holes.
Mont. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 179, 433 (1977)
[21] Bondi H .: Plane gravitational waves in general relativity. Nature 179, 1072 (1957)
[22] Bondi H., Gold T .: The steady-state theory of the expanding universe. Mont. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 108, 252 (1948)
[23] Born M., Infeld L .: Foundations of a New Field Theory. Proc.Roy. Soc. A 144, 425 (1934)
24. Bose SK, Wang MY: Phys. Roar. D10, 1675 (1974)
25. Boulware DG · Quantum field theory in Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. Phys. Roar. D11, 1404 (1975)
26. Boulware DG: Spin-1/2 quantum field theory in Schwarzschils space. Phys.Rev.Dl2,350 (1975)
27. Boulware DG: Hawk.ing radiation and thin shells. Phys. Roar. D13, 2169 (1976)
28. Boyer R H., Lindquist R W .: Maximal analytic extension of the Kerr metric. Journ. Math. Phys. 8, 265 (1967)
29. Braginskij VB: Physical experiments with probable bodies. Science, Moscow 1970
30. Bragin kij VB Menskij MB: Vysokočastotnoje detektirovanije gravitacionnych voln. Letter ZETF 13,585 (1971)
31. Braginskij VB, Panov VJ: Checking the equivalence of inert and gravitational mass. ŽETF 61, 873 (19 71)
32. Brans C., Dicke R H. · Mach's principle and a relativistic theory of gravitation. Phys. Roar. 124, 925 (1961)
33. Brdička M .: Continuum Mechanics. NČSAV, Praha 1959 34. Bronstein MP: ŽETF 6, 195 (1936)
35. Burbidge EM., Burbidge GR, Fowler WA, Hoyle F .: Synthesis of elements in stars. Roar. Mod. Phys. 29, 548 (1957)
36. Burke WL: Runaway solutions: remarks on the asymptotic theory of radiation damping. Phys. Roar. A2, 150y (1970)
37. Calvani M., Stuchlík Z .: Thick disks around black holes as energy sources of quasars and other astrophysical objects. Cs. time. Phys. A34, 23 (1984)
38. Carr BJ: The primordial black holes mass spectrum. Astrophys. Journ. 201, 1 (1975)
39. Carr BJ: Some cosmological consequences of primordial black holes evaporation. Astrophys. Journ. 206, 8 (1976)
40. Carr BJ, Rees MJ: The anthropic principle and structure of world. Nature 278, 605 (1979)
41. Carter B .: Complete analytic extension of the symetry
axis of Kerr's solution of Einstein's equations.
Phys. Roar. 141, 1242 (1966)
42. Carter B .: The complete analy tic extension of the
Reissner-Nordström metric in the special case e2 = m2.
Phys. Lett. 21, 423 (1966)
43. Carter B .: Global structure of the Kerr family of gravitational fields. Phys.Rev. l74, 1599 (1968)
44. Carter B .: Axisymetric black hole has only two degres fredom. Phys. Roar. Lett. 26, 331 (1970)
45. Carter B., Gibbons GW, Lin DNC, Perry MJ: Black holes
emissions process in the high energy limit.
Astronomer. Astrophys. 52, 427 (1976)
46. ??Chandrasekhar S .: The maximum mass of ideal white dwarfs. Astrophys. Journ. 74, 81 (1931)
47. Chandrasekhar S., Esposito F P .: The 2 1/2 - postnewtonian equations of hydrodynamics and radiation reaction in general relativity. Astrophys. Journ. 160, 153 (1970)
48. Chandrasekhar S .: The mathematic theory of black holes. Claredon Press, Oxford 1983
49. Chapline GF: Hadron physics and primordial black holes. Phys. Roar. D12, 2949 (1975)
50. Chapline GF: Cosmological effects of primordial black holes. Nature 253, 251 (1975)
51. Chitre DM, Hartle JB: Stationary configurations and the
upper bound on the mass of nonrotating causal neutron stars.
Astrophys. Journ. 207, 592 (1976)
52. Christensen SM, Fulling SA: Trace anomalies and the Hawking effect. Phys.Rev. D15, 2088 (1977)
53. Christodolou D: Reversible and ireversible transformations in black-hole physics. Phys.Rev.Lett. 25, 1596 (1970)
54. Christodolou D., Ruffini R .: Reversible transformations of the charged black hole. Phys.Rev. D4, 3552 (1971)
55. Chýla J .: Quarks, partons and quantum chromodynamics. Čs.čas.fyz. A33, 321 (1983)
56. Clayton D :: Principles of stelar evolution and nucleosynthesis. McGraw-Hill, New York 1968
57. Collins CB, Hawking SW :: Why is the universe isotropic? Astrophys.Journ. 180, 317 (1973)
58. Couch WE :, Torrence R J., Janis AI, Newman ET: Tail of a gravitational wave. Journ. Math.Phys. 9, 484 (1968)
59. Cremmer E., Julia B., Scherk J .: Phys. Lett. B76, 4'09 (1978)
60. Čech E .: Point sets. Academia, Prague 1966
61. Davis M., Ruffini R., Press WH, Price H .: Gravitational radiation from a particle falling radially into a Schwarzschild black hole. Phys. Roar. Lett. 27, 1466 (1971)
62. Davis M., Ruffini R., Tiommo J .: Pulses of gravitational radiation of a particle falling radially into a Schwarzschild black hole. Phys. Roar. D12, 2932 (1972)
63. Davies PCW :: On the origin of black hole evaporation radiation. Proc.Roy.Soc.A361,129 (1976)
64. Davies PC, W .: The thermodynamic theory of black holes. Proc.Roy, Soc. A353, 499 (1977)
65, Delbugo R., Salam A .: The gravitational correction to PCAC, Phys. Lett. B40, 381 (1972)
66. Deser 5 .., Zumino B ,: Co ~ sistent supergravity. Phys. Lett. B62, 335 (1976)
67. Dicke RH, Peebles PJE, Roll PG, Wilkinson DT: Cosmic black-body radiation. Astrophys. Journ. 142, 414 (1965)
68. Thick RH: ..........
69. Dicke RH: Scalar-tensor gravitation and the cosmic fireball. Astrophys.Journ. 152, 1 (1968)
70. Dirac PAM: Phys. Roar. 114, 924 (1959)
71. Desér S .: Self interaction and gauge invariance. Gene. Rel, Grav. l, 9 (1970)
72. Doroškevič AG,
Zeldovič JB, Novikov I, D .: Gravitational collapse of
asymmetric and murderous masses.
ZETF 49, 170 (1965)
73. Durisen RH: Upper mass limit for stable rotating white dwarfs. Astrophys.Journ. l99,179 (1975)
74. Dyson FJ: Seismic response of the Earth to a gravitational wave in the 1-Hz band. Astrophys. Journ. 156, 529 (1969)
75. Eardley DM: Death of white holes in the early universe. Phys. Roar. Lett. 33, 442 (1974)
76. Eddington AS: A comparison of Whitehead ~ s and Einstein formulas, Nature 113, 192 (1924)
77. Einstein A .. The meaning of relativity. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton 1953
78. Einstein A .. Sobranije naučnych trudov. Science, Moscow 1965-67
79. Everett H .: The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Rev.Mod.Phys. 29, 454 (1957)
80. Feinberg G :: Possibilgty of faster-than-light particles. Phys. Roar. 159, 1089 (1967)
81. deFelice F .: Equatorial geodesic motion in the gravitational field of a rotating source. Nuovo Cimento B57, 351 (1968)
82. deFelice F., Nobili L., Calvani M .: Astronom. Astrophys. 47, 309 (1976)
83. Ferrari A., Ruffini R. ' Theoretical implications of the
second time derivative of the pulsar NP 0532.
Astrophys. Journ. Lett. 158, 171 (1969)
84. Finkelstein D: Past-future asymmetry of the gravitational field of a point particle. Phys. Roar. 110, 965 (1958)
85. Fok VA: Teorija prostranstva, vremeni i tjagotenija. GIFML, Moscow 1961
86. Fowler WA: Massive stars, relativistic polytropes and gravitational radiation. Rev.Mod.Phys. 36, 545 (1964)
87. Fowler W: A .: The stability of supermasive stars. Astrophys. Journ, 144, 180 (1966)
88. Fowler WA: Experimental and Theoretical Nuclear Astrophysics; finding the origin of elements. Čs.čas.fyz, A34, 545 (1984)
89. Freedman DZ, vanNieuwenhuizen P .: Supergravity and the
unification of the laws of physics.
Scient.Amer. 238, 126 (1978)
90. Fulling SA: Radiation and vacuum polarization near black hole. Phys.Rev.Dl5,2411 (1977)
91. Gamow G .: The evolution of the universe. Nature 162, 680 (1948)
92. Gell-Mann M .: °°°°° Phys. Lett. 8, 214 (1964)
93. Gerlach UH: The mechanism of blackbody radiation from an incipient black hole. Phys.Rev. D14 1479 (1976)
94. Geroch RP: Topology in general relativity. Journ. Math. Phys. 8, 782 (1967)
95. Geroch RP: Local characterization of singularities in general relativity. Journ.Math.Phys. 9, 450 (1958)
96. Geroch RP: What is a singularity in general relativity. Ann.Phys. 48, 526 (1968)
97. Geroch RP: Spinor structure of space-times in general relativity I, II. Journ. Math. Phys. 9, 1739; 11, 343 (1968; 1970)
98. Gibbons GW, Hawking S W .: Theory of the detection of
short bursts of gravitational radiation.
Phys.Rev. D4, 2191 (1971)
99. Gibbons G: W., Perry MJ: Black holes in thermal equilibrium. Phys.Rev.Lett, 36, 985 (1976)
100. Gibbons GW, Hawking S W .: Actions integrals and partial functions in quantum gravity. Phys. Rev, D15, 2752 (1977)
101. Ginzburg VL: Astrophysics. Nauka, Moskva 1970 (Slovak translation: Alfa, Bratislava 1979)
102. Glück M .: On existence of tachyons. Nuovo Cimento Al, 467 (1971)
103. Gončarov AS, Linde AD: Chaotičeskoje rozduvanije vselennoj v supergravitaciji. ZETF 86, 1594 (1984)
104. Gödel K .: An example of a new type of cosmological
solution of Einstein's field equations of a gravitation.
Rev.Mod.Phys. 21, 447 (1949)
105. Gravitation and relativity. Proceedings (ed. Chiu HY, Hoffmann WF). Benjamin, New York 1964
106. Gravity and topology. Proceedings, Mir, Moscow 1966
107. Grygar J .: We will meet at infinity. Albatross, Prague 1979
108. Grygar J .: Astronomical tests of the theory of relativity. PMFA 28, 274 (1983)
109. Grygar J., Horsky Z., Mayer P .: Vesmir. MF, Prague 1979
110. Gupta SN: Gravitation and electromagnetism. Phys. Roar. 96, 1683 (1954)
111. Gupta SN: Einstein's and other theories of gravitation. Roar. Mod. Phys. 29, 337 (1957)
112. Guth AH: Inflantionar universe: a possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems. Phys. Roar. Dz3, 347 (1981)
113. Guth AH, Steinhardt PJ: The inflantionary universe. Scient.Amer. 250, 90 (1984)
114. Giirsel Y., Sandberg VD, Novikov ID, Starobinskij AA: Phys. Roar. D19, 413 (1979)
115. Harrison BK, Thorne KS, Wakano M., Wheeler JA:
Gravitation theory and gravitational collapse.
Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago 1965
116. Hartle JB: Long-range neutrino forces exerted by Kerr black holes. Phys.Rev. D3, 2938 (1971)
117. Hartle JB, Hawking SW: Path integral derivation of black hole radiance. Phys. Roar. D13, 2188 (1976)
118. Hartle JB, Hawking SW: Wave function of the universe. Phys.Rev. D28, 2960, (1983)
119. Hawking SW: The occurence of singularities, in cosmology. Proc.Roy.Soc.Lond. A300,187 (1967)
120. Hawking SW: Gravitational radiation from oolli.ding black holes, Phys.Rev.Lett.26,1344 (1971)
121. Hawking SW: Black holes in general relativity, Commun.Math.Phys. 25, 152 (1972)
122. Hawking SW: Black hole explosions? Nature 248, 30 (1974)
123. Hawking SW: Quantum particle creation by black hole. Commun. Math. Phys, 43, 199 (1975)
124. Hawking SW: Black holes and thermodynamics. Phys. Roar. D13, 191 (1976)
125. Hawking SW: Breakdown of predicability in gravitational collapse. Phys.Rev.Dl4,2460 (1976)
126. Hawking SW: Quantum mechanics of black holes. Cs. time. Phys. A28, ~ 314 (1978)
127. Hawking SW, Ellis GFR: The large scale structure of
space-time. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 1973
( Russian translation: Mir, Moscow
1977)
128. Hawking SW, Ellis GFR: The cosmic black-bod radiation and
the existence of singularities in our universe.
Astrophys. Journ. 152, 25 (1968)
129. Hawking SW, Moss IG: Supercooled phase transitions in the very early universe. Phys. Lett. B110, 35 (1982)
130. Hawking SW, Penrose R .: The singularities of
gravitational collapse and cosmology.
Proc.Roy.Soc.London A 314, 529 (1970)
131. Higgs PW: \\\\ Phys.Rev. 145, 1156 (1965)
132. Horák Z .: Inertia, relativity and cosmology. Czech.Journ.Phys. B19, 703 (1969)
133. Horák Z .: One Hundred Years of Mach's Principle. PMFA 17, 123 (1973)
134. Horský J .: On gravitational field of planes in general relativity. Czech.Journ.Phys. Bl8, 569 (1968)
135. Horský J .: Introduction to the theory of relativity. SNTL, Prague 1975
136. Horský J .: On two problems of general theory of relativity. Folia UJEP Brno, l8, 4 (1977)
137. Hoyle F .: A new model for the expanding universe. Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. 108, 372 (1948)
138. Hubble E: P .: Distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae. Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci. 15, 168 (1929)
139. Hughes VW, Robinson HG, Beltran-Lopez VB: Upper limit for the anisotropy of inertial mass from nuclear resonance experiments. Phys. Roar. Lett. 4, 342 (1960)
140. Isaacson RA: Gravitational radiation in the limit of high frequency. Phys.Rev. 166, 1263, 1272 (1968)
141. Israel W .: Event horizons in static vacuum spacetimes. Phys.Rev. 164, 1776 (1967)
142. Israel W .: Event horizons in static electrovac spacetimes, Commun.Math.Phys. 8, 245 (1968)
143. Israel W .: Event horizons and gravitational collapse. Gen.Rel.Grav. 2, 53 (1971)
144. Israel W .: Thermo-field dynamics of black holes. Phys.Lett. A57, 107 (1976)
145. Jaroszynski M., Abramowicz MA, Paczynski B .: Acta Astronom. 30, 1 (1980)
146. Kaluza T .: Zum unitätsproblem der physik. SB preuss Akad.Wiss., 966 (1921)
147. Kalvoda J .: The Evolution of the Universe in Relation to the History of the Earth. PMFA 26, 181 (1981)
148. Kaplan SA: Zvezd. Science, Moscow 1977
149. Kasner E .: Geometrical theorems on Einstein's cosmological equations. Am.J.Math. 43, 217 (1921)
150. Kaufman WJ: The cosmic
frontiers of general relativity. Little, Brown and Comp., Boston
1977
(Russian translation: Mir, Moscow 1981)
151. Kelley JL: General topology. Van Nostrand, Princeton 1965 (Russian translation: Nauka, Moscow 1968)
152. Kerr RP: Gravitational field of a spinning mass as an
example of algebraically special metrics.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 11, 237 (1963)
153. Kibble TWB: Phys.Rev. 155, 1554 (1967)
154. Kiržnic DA ., Linde AD: Phys.Lett. B42, 471 (1972)
155. Kobayashi S: Nomizu K .:
Foundations of differential geometry I, II. Intercsi.Publ., New
York 1963,1969
(Russian translation: Nauka, Moscow 1981)
160. Kruskal MD: Maximal extension of Schwarzschild metric: Phys. Roar. 119, 1743 (1960)
161. Kuchař K .: Charged shells of ideal liquid and the gravitational collapse. Czech.Journ.Phys. B18, 435 (1968)
162. Kuchař K .: Basics of general theory of relativity. Academia, Prague 1968
163, Kucera J., Horak. Z .: Tensors in Electrical Engineering and Physics. Academia, Prague 1963
164. Kvasnica J .: Physical Field. SNTL, Prague 1964
165. Landau LD, Lifšic EM: Mechanics. Science, Moscow 1973
166. Landau LD, Lifšic EM: Field Theory. Science, Moscow 1967
167. Landau LD, Lifšic EM: Statističeskaj a fizika. Moscow, Science 1964
168, Langer J .: Einstein and cosmology. Čs.čas.fyz. A29, 244 (1979)
169, Lichnerowicz A .: Theories Relativistic of Gravitation and Electromaghnism. Masson, Paris 1955
170. Lifšic EM: ˇˇˇˇˇˇ ŽETF 16, 587 (1946)
171. Linde AD: Coleman-Weinberg theory and the new inflationary universe scenario. Phys.Lett. B114, 431 (1983)
172. Linde AD: Chaotic inflation. Phys.Lett. B129, 177 (1983)
173. Linde AD: A new inflationary universe scenario. Phys.Lett. B108, 389 (1982)
174. Linde AD: Rozduvajuščajasja universenaja. UFN 144, 177 (1984)
175. Mach E .: The mechanics in their development. Brockhans, Leipzig 1933
176. Mickevich NV: Physical fields in the general theory of bearingability. Science, Moscow 1969
178. Misner CW: Feynman quantization of general relativity. Roar. Mod. Phys. 29, 497 (1957)
179. Misner CW: Minisuperspace. In: Magic without magic. ~~ 176 1972
180, Misner CW, Wheeler JA: Clasical physics as geometry. Ann. of Phys. 2, 525 (1957)
181, Misner CW, Thorne KS, Wheeler JA: Gravitation. Freeman, San Francisco 1972
182. Móller C .: pp.34-66 in the collection "Gravitacija i topologija", Mir, Moscow 1966
183. Móller C .: The theory of relativity. Oxford Univ.Press, Oxford 1960
184. Moncrief V .: Gauge-invariant perturbations of Reis.-Nords. black holes. Phys.Rev. Dl2.1526 (1975)
185. Mostepanenko MV: Philosophy and methods of scientific knowledge. Lenigrad 1972
186. Newman ET, Couch E., Chinnaparet K., Exton A., Parakash
A., Torrence R .: Metric of a rotating, charged mass.
Journ.Math.Phys. 6, 918 (1965)
187. Newman ET, Penrose R .: 10 exact gravitationally-conserved quantities. Phys. Rev.Lett. 15, 231 (1965)
188. Newman ET, Tamburino L., Unti TJ: Empty space
generalization of the Schwarzschild metric.
Journ.Math.Phys. 4, 915 (1963)
189. Niederle J .: Supersymmetry and Supergravity. Čs.Čas.Fyz. A30, 118 (1980)
190. Niewenhuizen P .: ::. Phys.Rep. 68, 189 (1981)
191. Nordström G .: Relativity and gravity. Phys.Z. 13, 1126 (1912)
192. Novikov ID, Starobinskij AA: Quantum electrodynamic effects inside hardened black earth and the problem of Kosovo gorizontov. ZETF 78, 3 (1980)
193. Novikov I D., Thorne KS: Black hole astrophysics. In: Black holes, Gordon and Breach, New York 1973
194. Perch LB: Current state and perspectives of high energy physics. Čs.čas.fyz. 32, 209 (1982)
195. Oppenheimer JR, Snyder H .: On continued gravitational contraction. Phys.Rev. 56, 455 (1939)
196. Oppenheimer JR, Volkov G .: On massive neutron cores. Phys.Rev. 55, 374 (1939)
197. Page DN: Particle emission rates from a black hole:
massive particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole.
Phys.Rev, D13, 198 (1976)
198. Page DN :, Hawking SW: Gamma rays from primordial black holes. Astrophys.Journ. 206, 5 (1976)
199. Peebles PJE: Primordial helium abundance and the primordial fireball. Astrophys. Journ. 146, 542 (1966)
200. Peebles PJE: Principles of physical cosmology. Princeton Univers. Press, Princeton 1993
201. Penrose R .: Conformal treatment of infinity. In: Relativity, groups and topology, Gordon and Breach, New York 1964
202. Penrose R .: Gravitational collapse and space-time singularities. Phys.Rev.Lett. 14, 57 (1965)
203. Penrose R .: Structure of space-time. WABenjamin, New
York, Amsterdam 1968
(Russian translation: Mir, Moscow
1972)
204. Penrose R .: Gravitational collapse: the role of general relativity. Riv. del Nuovo Cimento 1 (special), 252 (1969)
205. Penrose R., Floyd RM: Extraction of rotational energy from a black hole. Nature 229, 177 (1971)
206. Petržílka V., Šafrata S .: Electricity and Magnetism. NČSAV, Prague 1956
207. Popper DM: Red schift in the spectrum of 40 Eridiani B. Astrophys.Journ. 120, 316 (1954)
208. Pound RV, Rebka GA: Apparent weight of photons. Phys.Rev.Lett. 4, 337 (1960)
209. Pound RV, Snider JL: Effect of gravity on nuclear resonance. Phys.Rev.Lett. 13, 539 (1964)
210. Press WH, Teukolsky SA: Floating orbits, superradiant scaterring and the black hole bomb. Nature 238, 211 (1972)
211. Press WH, Teukolsky SA: Perturbations of a rotating black hole. Astrophys.Journ. 185, 649 (1973)
212. Price RH: Nonspherical perturbations of relativistic gravitational collapse. Phys.Rev. D5, 2419, 2439 (1972)
213. Rainich GY: Electrodynamics in the general theory of relativity. Trans.Am.Math.Soc. 27, 106 (1927)
214. Raševskij PK :: Riman geometry and tensor analysis. Science, Moscow 1964
215. Rees M., Ruffini R., Wheeler JA: Black holes, gravitational waves and cosmology. Gordon and Breach, New York-London-Paris 1974 (Russian translation: Mir, Moscow 1977)
216. Relativity, groups and topology. Proceedings (eds. C.deWitt, BSdeWitt). Gordon and Breach, New York 1964
217. de Rham G .: Different variations. Paris 1955
218. Rhoades CE, Ruffini R .: Maximum mass of a neutron star. Phys.Rev.Lett. 32, 324 (1974)
219. Robinson DC: Uniquenes of the Kerr black hole. Phys.Rev.Lett. 34, 905 (1975)
220. Roll PG, Krotkov R., Dicke RH: The equivalence of
inertial and passive gravitational mass.
Ann. of Phys. 26, 442 (1964)
221. Rosenfeld L .: Ann. Phys. 5, 113 (1930)
222. Ruffini R., Wheeler JA: Introducing the black holes. Phys.Today 1, 30 (1972)
223. Sakharov AD: Multigolist models of the universe. ZETF 83, 1233 (1982)
224. Šandarin SF, Doroškevič AG, Zeldovič JB: Krupnomasštabnaja struktura vselennoj. UFN 139, 83 (1983)
225. Schmidt BG: A new definition of singular points in general relativity. Gen.Rel.Grav. 1, 269 (1971)
226: Shapiro I .: Fourth test of general relativity. Phys.Rev.Lett. 14. 789 (1965)
227. Shapiro SL, Teukolsky SA: Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars. J. Wiley, New York 1983
228. Sharp NA: ~~ Gen. Rel. Grav. 10, 659 (1979)
229. Shervin CW: Some recent experimental tests and the "clock paradox". Phys.Rev. 120, 17 (1960)
230. Schoen P., Yau ST: Positivity of total mass of general space-time. Phys.Rev.Lett. 43, 1457 (1979)
231. Schoen P., Yau ST: ~~ ~ Commun. Math. Phys. 65, 45 (1979)
232. Skobelcyn DW: The paradox of the twins in the theory of endurance. Science, Moscow 1966
234. Starobinskij AA: Strive for freedom from the disruption of blacksmiths. ZETF 64, 48 (1973)
235. Stratton JA: Electromagnetic Field Theory. SNTL, Prague 1961
236. Stuchlik Z .: Equatorial circular orbits and the motion of the shell of dust in the field of a rotating naked singularity. Bull.Astronom.Inst.Czech. 31, 129 (1980)
237. Stuchlik Z .: The motion of test particles in black-hole background with non-zero cosmological constant. Bul.Astronom.Inst.Czech. 34, 129 (1983)
238. Synge JL: Relativity: The special theory. Nord-Holland, Amsterdam 1956
239. Synge JL: Relativity: The
general theory. Nord-Holland, Amsterdam 1960
(Russian translation: Mir, Moscow 1963)
241. Širokov MF: pp.321-332 in the collection Gravitacija, Naukova dumka, Kiev 1972
242. Taylor EF, Wheeler JA:
Spacetime physics. Freeman Co., San Francisco 1966
(Russian translation: Mir, Moscow 1969)
243. Taylor JH, Weisberg JM: A new test of general relativity: Gravitational radiation and the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16. Astrophys.Journ. 253, 908 (1982)
244. Teitelboim C .: Nonmeasurability of the quantum numbers of a black hole. Phys.Rev. D5, 2941 (1972)
245. Teitelboim C .: Nonmeasureability of the baryon number of a black hole. New Cement Lett. II 3, 326 (1972)
246. Teukolsky SA, Press W H .: Perturbations of a rotating black hole. Astrophys.Journ. 193, 443 (1974)
247. Thirring WE: An alternative approach to the theory of gravitation. Ann. of Phys. 16, 96 (1961)
248. Thirring H., Lense J .: The influence of Self-Rotation of Central Bodies on the Movements of the Planets and the Moon According to Einstein's Theory of Gravitation. Phys.Z. 19, 156 (1918)
249. Thorne KS: ~~ Astrophys. Journ. 148, 51 (1968)
25 0. Tolman RC: Relativity,
thermodynamics and cosmology. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1969
(Russian translation: Nauka, Moscow 1974)
251. Trautmann A .: Energy of Gravity and Cosmology. Čs.čas.fyz. 26, 464 (1976)
252. Ullmann V .: Gravitational collapse and physics of black holes . Reprint KNSP, Ostrava 1978
253. Ullmann V .: Does the Gravitational Field Have Energy? Universe 60, 46 (1981)
254. Ullmann V .: Gravitational Energy. PMFA 25, 250 (1980)
255. Ullmann V .: Gravity and Evolution of Stars. Views mat.-phys. 61, 203 (1982)
256. Ullmann V .: Mass from emptiness formed. Reprint KNSP, Ostrava 1980
257. Ullmann V .: We live in curved spacetime. Cosmic Views 23, 1 (1985)
258. Unruh WG: Second quantization in Kerr metric. Phys.Rev. D10, 3194 (1974)
259. Unruh WG: Notes of black holes evaporation. Phys.Rev. D14, 890 (1976)
260. Unruh WG: Origin of the particles in black hole evaporation. Phys.Rev. D15, 365 (1977)
261. Vanýsek V .: Fundamentals of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Academia, Prague 1980
262. Vilenkin A .: The birth of inflantionary universes. Phys. Roar. D27, 2848 (1983)
263. Votruba V .: Basics of special theory of relativity. Acadamia, Prague 1969
264. Votruba V., Muzikár Č .: Teorie elektromagnetického pole. NČSAV, Prague 1958
265. Vybíral B .: Physical field from the point of view of the theory of relativity. SPN. Bratislava 1980
266. Wagoner RV, Fowler WA, Hoyle F .: On the synthesis of
elements at very high temperatures.
Astrophys.Journ. 148, 3 (1967)
267. Wagoner RV: Big-bang nucleosynthesis revisited. Astrophys. Journ. 179, 343 (1973)
268. Wald RM: On particle creation by a black holes. Commun.Math.Phys. 45, 9 (1975)
269. Weber J .: General relativity and gravitational waves.
Wiley, New York 1961
(Russian translation: IL, Moscow
1962)
270. Weber J .: Gravitational radiation experiments. Phys.Rev.Lett. 24, 276 (1970)
271: Weinberg S .: Gravitation and cosmology. J.Wiley, New York 1972 (Russian translation: Mir, Moscow 1975)
272. Weiberg S .: ~~ ~ Phys. Roar. Lett. 19, 1264 (1967)
273. Weinberg S .: The first three minutes. MF, Prague 1983
274. Wheeler JA: Geons. Phys.Rev. 97, 511 (1955)
275. Wheeler JA: Gravity, the thirteenth and the universal. IIL, Moscow 1962
276. Wheeler JA: Mach's principle as a boundary condition for Einstein's equations. In: Gravitation and relativity, Benjamin, New York 1964
277. Wheeler JA. Predicted Einstein. Mir, Moscow 1970
278. Wilkins DC: Bound geodesics in the Kerr metric. Phys.Rev. D5, 817 (1972)
279. deWitt BS: Quantum theory of gravity I, II, III. Phys.Rev. 160,113; 162.1195.1239 (1967)
280. de Witt BS: Quantum field theory in curved space-time. Phys.Rept. C19, 297 (1975)
281. Witten L .: Initial value problem of the Einstein-Maxwell Field. Phys. Roar. 120, 635 (1960)
283. Witten E .. Dynamical breaking of supersymetry. Nucl.Phys. B188, 513 (1981)
284. Yang CN, Mills RL: ~~ ^ ~ Phys. Roar. 96, 191 (1954)
285. Zeldovič JB, Novikov ID: Theory of tjagotenija i evolucija zvezd. Science, Moscow 1971
286. Zeldovič JB, Starobinskij
AA: Particle partitioning and vacuum polarization in anisotropic
ravitational field.
ZETF 61, 216 (1971)
287. Zeldovič JB: Efforts of
cylindrical electromagnetic voltages in the treatment of the
body.
ŽETF 62, 2076 (1972)
288. Zeldovič JB, Novikov ID: Engineering and evolution of human health. Science, Moscow 1975
289. Zerilli FJ: Gravitational field of a particle falling in
a Schwarzschild geometry analyzed in tensor harmonics.
Phys.Rev. 2, 2141 (1970)
290. Zerilli FJ: ^ ~ ~~ Phys. Roar. D9, 860 (1974)
PMFA = Advances in Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy; UFN = Success of Physical Sciences; ŽETF = Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics
Other literature:
[290] .................
[292] .................
[293] ....... ..........
[294] Horský J., Bartoň S
.: Relativistic Universe. Ando Pub., Brno 1997
[295] .................
.......................
. ............
- newer literature will appear here, which appeared only after
the publication of the book "Gravity, Black Holes and the
Physics of Spacetime".
Gravity, black holes and space-time physics : | ||
Gravity in physics | General theory of relativity | Geometry and topology |
Black holes | Relativistic cosmology | Unitary field theory |
Anthropic principle or cosmic God | ||
Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation | ||
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy |
GRAVITATION, BLACK HOLES AND PHYSICS OF SPACE
E p i l o g u e
The author considers it his duty to apologize to readers and colleagues for some shortcomings, explain their causes and thank those who provided valuable assistance in the preparation and implementation of this book.
After the completion of the manuscript of the
book, a very paradoxical situation arose during
the negotiations on its realization: on the one hand there was a
work which for the first time in our literature dealt in more
detail and comprehensively with new physical aspects of
relativity, gravity, properties of spacetime, relativistic
astrophysics and cosmology (see "Foreword"), ie areas
of interest not only experts but also and the wider educated
public, which was waiting for a number of interested parties and
which would certainly take care of sales on the book market. On
the other hand, the relevant publishers - Academia, SNTL *), SPN,
Alfa - were not willing to publish the book in the foreseeable
future (apart from objective reasons - the capacity of publishing
plans - unfortunately and the intrigue of some colleagues who
were somewhat unclear) competitive ", prestigious or other
subjective reasons sought to prevent the publication of this
book).
improvised publication of a book through
Czechoslovakia. astronomical society at the Czechoslovak Academy
of Sciences in 1986, which was dismantled very quickly, mainly
for institutes, libraries, observatories, faculties and other
institutions; many other applicants remained. In 1990, we managed
to make a reprint thanks to Czechoslovakia. scientific and
technical society.
*) An abbreviated and simplified version of
this book was accepted for publication by
the SNTL (State Publishing House of Technical Literature)
and included in the edition plan in the edition "
Popular lectures on physics"."for 1989. All
preparatory work was carried out, including corrections, but
during the rate in the autumn of 1989 there was a political
upheaval, as a result of which practically all professional
publishing activities were stopped and reversed, so that in the
end it was not realized ...
The main shortcomings of the book also stem from the above-mentioned difficulties (and, of course, also from errors on the part of the author) :
The kind reader will perhaps understand that an individual without a technical and financial background, even with the best effort and dedication, cannot compete with a professional editorial and printing team. The author welcomes all comments from readers and will try to eliminate the shortcomings in case of the possibility of another (perhaps already more appropriate) edition. **)
**) Current note: |
It is a nice duty of the author
to thank as warmly as possible those who contributed to the
realization of this book. He is mainly a colleague from
Czechoslovakia. Astronomical Society at the Czechoslovak Academy
of Sciences J.Skoumal , with his collaborators J.
Bušovský and L. Blochová , who
dedicatedly provided polygraphic work during the printing of the
book . M.Vlček and F.Kozelský
. Ing.K.Peprný from Czechoslovakia provided
significant help in reprinting the monograph . scientific and
technical society.
Rare colleagues Prof.RNDr.J.Horský, DrSc. and RNDr.J.Grygar,
CSc.who undertook the book review provided many valuable
suggestions, expert discussions, advice and comments (as well as
encouraging words) when writing the book.
Gravity, black holes and space-time physics : | ||
Gravity in physics | General theory of relativity | Geometry and topology |
Black holes | Relativistic cosmology | Unitary field theory |
Anthropic principle or cosmic God | ||
Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation | ||
AstroNuclPhysics ® Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy |