RNDr. Vojtěch Ullmann
- nuclear and radiation physics, nuclear medicine -

This part of the "AstroNuclPhysics" system is devoted to the main field of the author's activity - the field of nuclear physics and nuclear medicine, including mathematical analysis and modeling, software development and the use of computer technology in this field. As well as observations from many years of work at the Department of Nuclear Medicine in Ostrava-Poruba.

In this part is mainly a comprehensive monograph "Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation", discussing in detail the principles and methods of nuclear physics, properties of elementary particles and ionizing radiation, biological effects of radiation, detection and spectrometry methods, applications of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, radiodiagnostics, radionuclide scintigraphy, principles of radiation protection. There is also a description of the OSTNUCLINE system for mathematical analysis and comprehensive evaluation of functional scintigraphic studies, the treatise "Filters and Filtration" and Phantom Measurements in Nuclear Medicine and several other topics related to nuclear physics, radiation physics, nuclear medicine.
   These topics may be of interest to both doctors and laboratory workers in the field of nuclear medicine, radiodiagnostics and radiotherapy
(in terms of methodology and physical-mathematical principles of examination and therapeutic methods), especially for physicists, electronics or mathematicians working in nuclear physics and ionizing radiation applications. Those interested can also find relevant methodological materials for postgraduate education in radiological fields.

Author's personal notes :

How did I get into nuclear physics and nuclear medicine? I decided to study physics at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University with the aim of focusing on the theory of relativity, field theory, astrophysics and cosmology . During my studies, however, I found out that I did not want to stay in Prague (I mention the reasons in the " Foreword of the author " to the area " Relativity-gravity, astrophysics, cosmology ") and elsewhere I would probably not "enjoy" the theoretical fields of relativity & gravity. I therefore opted for nuclear physics as my main field and kept relativity, astrophysics and cosmology as "hobbies". I did my diploma thesis at the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciencesin Řež near Prague on the topic of nuclear spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava-Poruba
When looking for a job, I visited several physical workplaces in Moravia , including the
Department of Nuclear Medicine in Olomouc . Here I met my colleague Ing. Václav Hušák , CSc. (later professor) and with MUDr. Josef Kuba , CSc. - later associate professor and head of the Department of Nuclear Medicine in Ostrava. MUDr.Kuba (coincidentally also a native of Konice, as I later found out) suggested to me that I apply to the just completed nuclear medicine workplace in Ostrava-Poruba, where they are looking for a physicist and where he will soon go to work as a boss. And so since 1973 I have been working as a physicist at Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital in Ostrava (the first year it was still a temporary workplace in Paskov) .

A very good interdisciplinary work team was formed at this newly established department (1974) - in addition to Doc. J. Kuba, I worked closely with electronics engineer Ing. L. Dubrok, radiochemist Ing. M. Závada, with other doctors Dr. Dr.O.Kuchař, pharmacist Dr.J.Pekárek. Later came other colleagues of chemical disciplines Dr. K. Šafarčík and Ing.Vl.Bartoš, from the field of informatics Dr. H. Matová. From doctors then Dr.J. Kubinyi and Dr.O.Kraft, later Dr.Vl.Dedek, Dr.P.Širůček, Dr. Černochová, even later Dr.Palasová, Dr.Drozdková. The cooperation with the programmer Dr. A. Slanina from the computer center FNsP was very fruitful (now he works in the software company Commit, the cooperation partially continues). Other collaborators from the ranks of radiological laboratory technicians and nurses also responded to many non-standard activities related to research and development work. Several research tasks and grants were solved at the workplace. In teamwork, a number of original methods and procedures were developed at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, especially in the field of physical-mathematical analysis of radioisotope studies and their complex computer evaluation .
   We started from physical-mathematical models, we tested them experimentally on phantoms, and finally a stage of clinical testing and introduction into clinical practice followed. One of the implementation outputs of these research and development works was the system
OSTNUCLINE for mathematical analysis and comprehensive evaluation of scintigraphic studies, the current versions of which 3.3 and 2000 are routinely operated at a number of nuclear medicine facilities.
   The knowledge and experience of the team of the Clinic of Nuclear Medicine (KNM) in Ostrava were also used in lectures at symposia not only in the field of nuclear medicine, but also met with lively interest in symposia of other disciplines, such as cardiology, nephrology and oncology ... they also organize postgraduate seminars and courses in the field of nuclear medicine for university staff from all over the country, in cooperation with KNM Olomouc. An important part of these postgrades. courses and seminars are comprehensive lectures in
nuclear physics and radiation physics, including detailed areas of nuclear medicine ("Scintigraphy"), X-ray diagnostics and Radiotherapy.

The first two decades of work at the Department of Nuclear Medicine in Ostrava-Poruba were "heroic times"! In teamwork, we have succeeded in making cutting-edge nuclear medicine, developing and implementing new methods at the world level. At the same time, I "pursued" my second field or "hobby", the theory of relativity, astrophysics and cosmology - at that time I wrote the monograph "Gravity, Black Holes and the Physics of Spacetime", which is still the only comprehensive work in this area in our country. Even from the collegial and social point of view, it was quite perfect (see below "Social events at KNM ") .

After the departure of Doc. Kuba (he reached retirement age) to the Detached Department of Nuclear Medicine, in 1994 the head of the clinic became MUDr. Jozef Kubinyi, PhD., with which successful teamwork continued in the development of scintigraphic methods, their evaluation and interpretation. This change in the person of the chief represented a fundamental turn *), from the former authoritarian (and often despotic) management of the KNM, to democratic collegial leadership , with objective discussions with staff at all levels (unfortunately some unwise people did not appreciate it, there were sometime unnecesary disputes and intrigues, under the pressure of which the democratic atmosphere eventually began to disappear somewhat ...).
*) Note: Jožka Kubinyi was the only KNM physician who was able to openly stand up to the chief Doc. Kuba and resolutely "send him somewhere"(symbolically and literally..!..). Doc.Kuba was furious at first and threatened to dismiss Dr.Kubinyi, but then he tamed and finally gladly agreed with Dr. Kubiny on a certain "modus vivendi", thanks to which he was able to work in a detached workplace for several years (only with occasional side "groaning"), where he did a lot of quality diagnostic work.
   Dr. Kubinyi's social and political commitment eventually resulted in his election to the Chamber of Deputies for the CSSD; for this reason, he also resigned as head of the clinic and devoted himself to the field of nuclear medicine only with a workload of 0.1. I considered the departure of such an erudite expert to be a great loss for the field of nuclear medicine in our country (I talked to him and hoped that this would perhaps be at least partially offset by his social contribution; but his tenure as Minister of Health was short-lived and unsuccessful. ..) . Fortunately, Dr. Kubinyi has returned to the field of nuclear medicine and is now very active and erudite working as a primary career at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General Hospital in Prague.

The head of KNM in Ostrava in 2002 became MUDr. Otakar Kraft , PhD., with whom he also continues to cooperate in the development of diagnostic methods and programs and in publishing. But this is already the present, information on further events at the KNM in Ostrava can be found at: http://www.fno.cz/klinika-nuklearni-mediciny .

In addition to collaborators from the KNM in Ostrava, I also collaborated in the field of nuclear medicine with colleagues from other workplaces. They were mainly colleagues of Prof. Vaclav Husak, Ing. Jiří Erban, K.Kleinbauer from KNM Olomouc, then prim.MUDr. Jiří Bakala and Ing. Petr Minář from dept. of Nuclear Medicine Zlín, Ing. Helena Trojanová (Sůrová) and Doc. Martin Šámal from KNM-BFÚ Prague, Ing. Ladislav Dubroka and Dr. Gábor Gesztes from G&G Medical, Ing.Dr. Miroslav Rossler, MD Vojtěch Grecman and Ing. Václav Poljak from ONM Uherské Hradiště, MUDr. Rudolf Kopacek from ONM Usti n.Labem, MUDr. Jiří Hrbáč from ONM Opava, ... and many others ... I am grateful to them for their valuable advice and inspiration.

Social events at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava-Poruba
When the Department of Nuclear Medicine KNsP in Ostrava-Poruba was founded (perhaps by a happy coincidence..?..)
a rarely balanced team of workers, mostly young people, met with active interest - sometimes "zeal" - for the then developing field of nuclear medicine. In addition to very erudite professional work, mutual friendly communication between employees also flourished, including entertainment, often quite exuberant, from a number of pleasant and sometimes humorous events. I would like to mention some of them briefly.
   The social "soul" of our KNM for many years was MUDr. Otakar Kuchar, an extremely decent, modest and empathetic person.
Only from him did Prim. Kuba get advice and from him he had some biggest fads of his impulsive and manic egocentric nature corrected (below mention Doc. MUDr. Josef Kuba ) . Dr. Kuchar "did not spoil any fun" and was the driving force behind the joint meetings of KNM employees. At that time (70s-80s), the so-called " Socialist Labor Brigades " (BSL) were widely promoted in the workplace . Originally, perhaps a good idea mostly turned into bureaucratic formalism, but Dr.Kuchař was able to take it in a positive sense: certain tasks were planned (which were solved from a professional point of view) and the relevant "BSL meeting" was conceived as a friendly meeting of the whole team, with plenty of drinking, entertainment and fun until late in the evening (sometimes in the morning) .
   At that time, the directors of the entire institute - Halbich, MD, and later Fitřík, MD, sometimes took part in these meetings. It was nice that some directors at the time did not feel so elitistically superior to their "subordinate" co-workers, they did not surround themselves with a group of their favorites, but also tried to be in informal contact with colleagues from individual workplaces ...
I will mention some humorous stories :
To encourage the drinking of wine, Ota Kuchar went around the individual womans co-workers at the table and sipped red wine with them - let them drink that it affects "those blood cells". Or with the slogan "drink, let you be more relaxed". It was, of course, meant only figuratively, friendly and in all decency....   
   At our workplace, we used liquid nitrogen to cool a semiconductor Ge (Li) detector
(§2.5 " Semiconductor detectors ") . It occurred to me that we could try to cool the plum brandy with this liquid nitrogen , which would become solid ice. At the BSP party, I brought this frozen unusual alcohol to taste. We found it to be very gentle. At that time, a colleague of radiochemist Dr. stayed at our workplace for a long-term internship. Pavel Krejčí, nicknamed Palo , from the Department of Nuclear Medicine in Opava (he specialized in in vitro laboratory methods RIA ). He tasted the frozen plum brandy very much, he said that there was no way to recognize alcohol. And so he drank a lot, or rather bit it, the frozen plum brandy. In our conference room, where the various parties took place, there were, in addition to ordinary chairs, longer benches for about 4 people. Pavel and three other colleagues tasted the frozen plum brandy on this bench. He began to sway more and more to the beat of the music, after which the whole bench overturned back and everyone fell to the ground with screams. Palo could no longer get up on his own, they helped him go to the study, he did not go home and slept in the workplace. Well, that frozen plum brandy was tricky..!..

Doc.MUDr. Josef Kuba
A prominent Czechoslovak figure. nuclear medicine in the 70s-80s. years was Doc.MUDr. Josef Kuba, CSc. He was the first head of the Department of Nuclear Medicine KNsP - University Hospital in Ostrava, for many years he also served as chairman of the Czechoslovak society of nuclear medicine. Doc. Kuba was a very erudite and experienced expert in the field of nuclear medicine, he also had organizational skills and connections. He significantly contributed to the development of the field of nuclear medicine in our country and especially at the workplace of nuclear medicine in Ostrava, which at that time was the best and best-equipped workplace not only in our country but also in Central and Eastern Europe.
  From a personal, human, character point of view, however, Doc. Kuba was a bit of a "little soul"
(low, petty, angry, thorny)... He viewed his co-workers from the workplace - rather than his colleagues - authoritatively and despotic as his subordinates, who must be at his hands, "shut up and keep up", they have no right to be independent opinion, only the boss is "right". He insulted, "buzzed" and "suffocated" their initiative, and he spoke negatively and irritably to open discussion. He worked "stuffy" at the workplace, everyone was happy when he went on holiday or the symposium (the work was done the same in terms of quantity and quality, but in a more pleasant atmosphere ...) . Only his colleague and friend, a very reputable MUDr. O.Kuchar, at least sometimes he was able to disuade him some of the biggest autocratic excesses...
  I once witnessed the following conversation: We were dealing with Dr. Kuba at a gamma camera when a colleague of electronics, Ing. Dubroka, came there. Prim. Cuba asked him sternly, "Have you finished the monitor connection I gave you last week?" . "Yes, it's done, it worked out pretty well." "Hm, OK." When Ing. Dubroka left, Prim.Kuba growled "So he pissed me off (he said it more popularly ...)" . I asked, "Why, it's good that he's already involved". "Yes, but I had such a desire to 'stamp' him, and he ruined my joy!" .
Prim. Kuba often used confrontational phraseology. E.g. when someone didn't do something soon (preferably immediately...), instead of the normal reminder "You probably forgot about it", he usually said "You shit on it !"...

  Doc. Kuba was typically motivated anti-communist
(although he kept in good contact with the party "papals"...) *). He said: "There must be strictness for the poor people" and "If it wasn't for that damn socialism and our NM workplace belonged to me, you would only see what kind of war I would make you! ". Fortunately, nothing like this happened, a political coup caught him just before his retirement, and even large clinics in regional and faculty institutes were saved from privatization.  From similar autocratic motives, he "quarreled" with most of the heads of other workplaces of nuclear medicine (he ignored other colleagues, only bosses were partners for him...). We sometimes had problems with professional cooperation with colleagues from other workplaces, until we managed to explain that we do not share any antipathy or contempt, we have the opposite opinion and welcome friendly cooperation ...
*) His position in this regard is well illustrated by one incident that happened to me. I went regularly on May 1 with co-workers from Department of nuclear medicine to the May Day parade in Ostrava, then we went for a beer or to nature. When my daughter Hanka was 4 years old, I took her with me. We got off the tram on Hulvátský hill and went towards the Prostorná street to look for our group nucl.med. But Hanička wanted to buy a balloon on the way, so we stayed a bit, a lot of people flocked there and we got into the parade a little further, with another group. The very next morning, when I was setting up the gamma camera, Prim came Kuba and hurriedly started at me: "How come you didn't take part in the May Day parade!". "But I was there with my little daughter, but despite the crowds, we couldn't push our group". "I fuck on it, for me is important that you weren't in our group, which the headquarters is watching closely. I hope it doesn't happen again next time!". "No, it won't - because this is the last time I was in Ostrava on May 1st!". Dr. Kuba blushed, slammed the door, and didn't talk to me for days. So for the next few years we went with my children to my grandmother's in Bořenovice on May 1 to Holešov, where the May Day parade was conceived more as a folk party with traditional costumes, flowers and allegorical cars, mainly for children (and not as bombastically organized as in big cities).
  Doc. Kuba was a germanophile and was very impressed by the hierarchical conditions traditionally held in German university and medical departments: that the headmaster often ruled with an "iron hand", supressed discussions and erudite colleagues who tried to develop new ideas and approaches had to go elsewhere.
  Dr. Kuba was unable to reflect, that this despotic behavior harms himself the most..!.. When I tried to indicate it to him gently and friendly, I encountered a negative irritated reaction... We otherwise got along quite well - partly due to my non-conflicting nature, partly due to our different professional focus. I was not a competitor for him, on the contrary he needed me (and I didn't mind if he sometimes appropriated the results of my research and development work himself ... - I did my work out of personal cognitive interest and for the needs of the field and workplace, not for personal prestige and presentation) .
  Initially, there were attempts to despotic manipulation of my work. This is illustrated by the incident in 1974, when I intensively developed a computer system for mathematical analysis and evaluation of scintigraphic studies. When I finished the algorithms for the calculation of derivation and integration of curves and mathematical functions, I demonstrated it with satisfaction to Prim. Kuba, in anticipation of lively interest and a constructive discussion about the possibilities of practical use. However Dr.Kuba paused for a moment, then frownwd and said unkindly: "It may be interesting for you as toy, but it would be better if you'd prefer dedicated to what I commanded to you! "
(It was a kind of database, which were ahead it is clear that they will be useless - our specialized computer technology was not suitable for that and we had an established institutional computer center for it, which was able to do it much better). At that time, Dr. Kuba had not recognize that these algorithms would soon become the basis for the unique Gamma-11-OSTGAM-OSTNUCLINE system for complex mathematical analysis and computer evaluation of scintigraphy ( OSTNUCLINE - Comprehensive evaluation of scintigraphy ) , with which he then traveled at symposia at home and abroad and presented at that time unique complexity of this system. He then understood that it is sometimes better to leave the freedom of scientific research and technical development, without subjective and unqualified commanding...
Note: I knew his father, who worked in Konice as a very good general practitioner (line "Memories - interesting places and people", the passage "Physicians in Konice"). It's interesting that the autocratic qualities after him, to an increased extent, Doc.Kuba inherited..!.. It was his personal misfortune in the professional community and in the family: some respected him (others on the contrary ...) , mostly they were afraid of him, but no one really liked ihim... The people of this "blood type" should not hold leadership positions in which they have the right to command their colleagues; but as independent experts they can do a lot of perfect work. Unfortunately, human society is set up so that management positions are preferably come just autocratic and despotic people (even in the highest positions with unlimited power - it has cost millions of wasted lives and human misery).
  After retiring, Doc. Kuba suddenly "slammed the door" behind him. He did not want to hear from my suggestions that as an emeritus experienced expert he could organize seminars, give lectures at symposia, educate young workers. That many colleagues would certainly like to see him (that fortunately, the bad is usually forgotten faster and the good is emphasized ...) . He did not attend the workplace of nuclear medicine, then he no longer took part in any professional events (conscience in the subconscious..?..; he felt like an unrecognized pensioner). His earlier behavior (when he was "in power") contributed to the fact that Doc. Kuba's considerable merits for the development of the field of nuclear medicine in our country were quickly forgotten. Which is certainly a shame!
  For my part, however, despite all the above facts, the overall personality evaluation Doc. Kuba is positive. I like to remember our long-term professional cooperation, joint participation in symposia, as well as trips to nature, he especially liked the mountains...

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Vojtech Ullmann