Primordial nucleosynthesis and stars - alchemical cauldrons of the universe

AstroNuclPhysics Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology

COSMIC NUCLEAR ALCHEMY
and/or
ON THE ORIGIN OF ELEMENTS
  
    

Structure of matter and nuclear physics
Primordial nucleosynthesis at the beginning of the world
Stars - alchemical cauldrons of space
We are all descendants of the stars !

Vojtech Ullmann
p h y s i c i s t

In the lecture on the relationship between nuclear physics and astrophysics and cosmology, we will approach a fascinating scenario of the formation of elements in space and the chemical evolution of the universe at various stages of its evolution.

S y l a b u s


NATURE - NATURAL SCIENCE

The most basic questions of science:
What is the essence and internal composition of matter?
What laws govern the duration, motion, and transformation of matter?

What is the essence of the universe? Did the universe come into being spontaneously, or was it created by God?

MACROWORLD 10 -8 m <d <10 3 light years
Classical physics (Newtonian mechanics, thermodynamics, electrodynamics ...)

MICROWORLD - nitro matter d <10 -8 cm
Quantum physics, atomistics,
nuclear physics , elementary particles

MEGA-WORLD - distant universe d> 10 3 world years
Special theory of relativity - high velocities time dilation, length contraction
General theory of relativity - gravity
curved spacetime
Astrophysics + Cosmology

Matter - substance
Basic question:
What is the essence and internal composition of matter ?


Divisibility of substances: e unlimited divisible - continuum
limited division - structure - a t o m s

What is the carrier of the properties of substances?
Substance properties: alchemy chemistry physics ; Chemical properties e l e m e n t s

Mendeleev's periodic table of chemical elements
(
elements marked in red are radioactive - they do not have stable isotopes)
H
1
  He
2
Li
3
Be
4
  B
5
C
6
N
7
O
8
F
9
Ne
10
Na
11
Mg
12
  Al
13
Si
14
P
15
S
16
Cl
17
Ar
18
K
19
Ca
20
Sc
21
Ti
22
V
23
Cr
24
Mn
25
Fe
26
Co
27
Ni
28
Cu
29
Zn
30
Ga
31
Ge
32
As
33
Se
34
Br
35
Kr
36
Rb
37
Sr
38
Y
39
Zr
40
Nb
41
Mo
42
Tc
43
Ru
44
Rh
45
Pd
46
Ag
47
Cd
48
In
49
Sn
50
Sb
51
Te
52
I
53
Xe
54
Cs
55
Ba
56
La ..
Hf
72
Ta
73
W
74
Re
75
Os
76
Ir
77
Pt
78
Au
79
Hg
80
Tl
81
Pb
82
Bi
83
Po
84
At
85
Rn
86
Fr
87
Ra
88
Ak ..
Rf
104
Db
105
Sg
106
Bh
107
Hs
108
Mt
109
Ds
110
Rg
111
Uub
112
Uut
113
Uuq
114
Up
115
Uuh
116
New
117
Uuo
118
 
The nthanoids:  La
57
Ce
58
Pr
59
Nd
60
Pm
61
Sm
62
Eu
63
Gd
64
Tb
65
Dy
66
Ho
67
Er
68
Tm
69
Yb
70
Lu
71
If tinoids:  Ac
89
Th
90
Pa
91
U
92
Np
93
Pu
94
Am
95
Cm
96
Bk
97
Cf
98
Es
99
Fm
100
Md
101
No
102
Lr
103

CONTRIBUTION OF ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
- deep penetration into the interior of matter -

Understanding the structure of matter - What is the carrier of the properties of substances? - Atoms!
Atomic Physics:
structure of atoms substance chemistry

                         Thomson "pudding" model of Rutherford scattering experiments planetary model  
Bohr model 

Electrical fusion of atoms all the diversity of substances in our world

The "head" of an atom is the atomic nucleus :
The structure and properties of the atom are given by the structure of its
nucleus
- the
number of Z protons in the nucleus determines the electronic configuration of the shell and the occupation of the valence shell -

Core dimensions: 10 -13 cm (100,000 times smaller than an atom!), Density r 10 14 g / cm 3

Hopelessness of medieval alchemy's efforts to transmutate elements!
(they had no idea about the nucleus, they "scraped" atoms only on the valence shell)
Paradox: alchemists were often astronomers - they had no idea that stars that observe at night can do
what they try in vain on a large scale for billions of years!

Nuclear physics: structure of atomic nuclei, strong and weak (nuclear) interactions


All the diversity of species and structures of atomic nuclei, their excitation and radiation as well as nuclear reactions,
nuclear physics explains by the idea of
protons and neutrons occupying certain energy levels
in the field of nuclear forces.

Knowledge of the properties of elementary particles
- leptons, baryons, hadrons
- quarks, gluons ...

- particles - antiparticles

Unitary field theory electroweak interaction - GUT (grandunifikan theory) - supergravity - Superstrings

Scheme various stages and processes unification of four fundamental interactions in nature (see porobnji B.6 " Unification of fundamental interactions. Supergravity. Superstrings. " Books " gravity, black holes, and space - time physics ").

Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

Reaction (n, g ) - slow neutron radiation capture - production of b - emitters in the reactor
99 Mo (
99m Tc), 131 J, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 137 Cs, 133 Xe, ......
Reaction (p, g ) - production of b +-radiators in accelerator (cyclotron)
201 Tl, 67 Ga, 111 In, 81 Rb ( 81m Kr), 18 F, 15 O, 11 C ........

Industrial use of radiation
Defectoscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, neutron activation analysis ...

Biological use of radiation

Binding energy of nucleons in nuclei nuclear energy

Energy recovery from atomic nuclei - Nuclear energetics

235 U + n 140 X + 90 Y + (2-3) n (+ 200 MeV); 238 U + n 239 U ( b - ) 239 Pu fission .....

- about 0.9 MeV / nucleon is released efficiency: < 0.1% from E = mc 2

Our terrestrial efforts to use nuclear energy are just clumsy attempts
to emulate what stars have been able to do for billions of years!

What are we missing? - Strong gravity.


Basic question:
Where did the elements come from in nature?

Option 1:
All the elements God created "with his hands" at the same time as the creation of the world,
or :
All the elements were created at the origin of the universe
.
(and since then they only merge with each other)
Option 2:
When the universe was created, only the simplest elements were created,
more complex (heavier) elements were created gradually during the evolution of the universe:
- cosmic nucleogenesis -

ASTROPHYSICS - physical phenomena in universe

Nuclear astrophysics
Application of the laws and phenomena of nuclear physics to processes taking place in space

COSMOLOGY - structure and evolution of the universe as a whole

Origin, development and end of the closed universe :  
Early universe - the "big bang" - hadron era

lepton era - primordial nucleosynthesis

era radiation

era substances - formation for up galaxies, galaxies, stars

Next to nucleosynthesis in stars

The end of the universe:
open universe thermal death
closed universe big crash
Hidden matter:
“Brown dwarfs”?
Black holes?
Neutrinos (rest mass?) ?
Other "exotic" particles?

Pre - big-bang phase + big bang itself: neither nucleons nor nuclei of atoms existed.

1. Hadron era ~ 10 -6 s <t ~ 10 -4 s, r > 10 14 g / cm 3 , T> 10 12 K
The majority of matter in space was formed by a mixture of emerging and annihilating heavy particles and antiparticles with a strong interaction (protons, neutrons, mesons, hyperons - ie hadrons), whose number was about the same as photons and neutrinos; there is a thermodynamic equilibrium between all these particles. The strong role between hadrons plays a dominant role here .
Baryon asymmetry
: an excess of nucleons, about 1 baryon per 10
8 particles.
Particle formation

H
1
- only protons - hydrogen nuclei    
                                         
                                         
                                                                                         

2. Lepton era ~ 10 -4 s <t <~ 10 s, ~ 10 14 g / cm 3 > r > ~ 10 4 g / cm 3 , ~ 10 12 > T> ~ 5.10 9 K
When the temperature drops so much, that kT ( k is Boltzman's constant) is significantly lower than the resting energy of the proton, nucleons and antinucleons annihilate each other (due to baryon asymmetry except for the small surplus of nucleons, which led to the formation of the substance now in space); the mass of the universe then mainly consisted of an equilibrium mixture of light particles - photons, electrons, positrons, neutrinos and antineutrinos.

The Lepton era

free neutrons are
unstable

- "rescue" of neutrons in helium -

primary nucleosynthesis

H
1
75% hydrogen H, 25% helium He He
2
                                         
                                         
                                                                                         

3. Radiation era ~ 10 s <t <~ 10 13 s @ 300,000 years, ~ 10 4 g / cm 3 > r > ~ 10 -21 g / cm 3 , ~ 10 10 K> T> 3.10 10 K
At the beginning of this stage (also called the radiation-dominating era of the photon plasma), the synthesis of helium and the annihilation of electrons with positrons are still complete. When the energy of the primary photons dropped below 0.5 MeV, which corresponds to the rest energy of the electron, the radiation ceased to have a significant effect on the further evolution of the elements in space.
- from the point of view of nucleosynthesis, nothing happens

4. The era of matter (post-recombination period),
which begins with the completion of recombination (approximately 300 00 years after the Big Bang) and continues to this day. The temperature of the substance , which becomes the main carrier of energy-mass, decreases as a -2 during expansion and should currently reach only about 10 -2 K; the temperature of the separated "relic" radiation, changing as a -1 , dropped from the original 3000 K to today's about 2.7 K. The expansion of the universe transformed what was once light into microwaves.

Formation of large-scale structure of the universe

The formation of galaxies and clusters of galaxies

Star formation


The story of cosmic nucleogenesis continues and graduates !
or
thermonuclear reactions inside stars

Districts can form in a shrinking cloud in which gravitational contractions occur faster than in the surroundings (gravitational instabilities). From these individual districts, protostars are formed and finally stars, which usually form in groups.

Thermonuclear reactions as a source of energy for stars

  • Hydrogen combustion H He (star on the main sequence HR diag.)
  • a) direct proton-proton reaction (p = 1 H)

    1st partial reaction: 1 H + 1 H 2 D + e + + n (+ 1.44 MeV)
    2nd partial reaction:
    2 D + 1 H 3 He + g (+ 5.49 MeV)
    3rd part Reaction: 3 He + 3 He 4 He + 2 1 H (+ 12.85 MeV)

    Total energy balance: release 26.2 MeV = 4.2.10 -12 J / core He

    b) CNO cycle

    1st partial reaction: 12 C + 1 H 13 N + g (+ 1.95 MeV)
    2nd
    partial reaction: 13 N 13 C + e + + n (+ 2.22 MeV)
    3rd partial reaction:
    13 C + 1 H 14 N + g (+ 7.54 MeV)
    4th partial reaction:
    14 N + 1 H 15 O + g (+ 7.35 MeV)
    5th partial reaction:
    15 O 15 N + e + + n (+ 2.71 MeV)
    6th partial reaction: 15 N + 1 H 12 C + 4 He (+ 4.96 MeV)

    Total energy balance: release 25.0 MeV = 4.0.10 -12 J /1 core He

    General :
    The
    binding energy of each proton in the He nucleus is 0.007 m 0 c 2
    Thermonuclear hydrogen combustion efficiency: 0.007 m 0 c 2 ( 0.7% )

  • Helium combustion He C (reaction 3 a 12 C + g )
  • 4 He + 4 He 8 Be + g
    8
    Be + 4 He
    12 C + g (+ 7.4 MeV)

  • Combustion of carbon C O , oxygen, ..... ( a - processes)
  • May continue at rising temperature: (if there is still enough helium)

    12 C + a 16 O + g (+ 7.15 MeV)
    16
    O +
    a 20 Ne + g (+ 4.75 MeV)
    20 Ne +
    a 24 Mg + g (+ 9.31 MeV)
    etc. ......

    a - process: the capture of particles a , reacting ( a , g ) - typically up to 40 Ca

    neutron capture ; subsequent b - - decay :
    N A Z + n 0
    N + 1 B Z + g ; N + 1 B Z (b - ) N + 1 C Z + 1 + e - + g

    Slow capture n0 (s-process - proceeds slower than b-decay); - up to N = 210
    Rapid capture of neutrons (so-called r -process - repeated capture, faster than b-decay); - mostly in the final stages and during a supernova explosion
    (and also in the nucleonization of neutron matter ejected during neutron star collisions) ...

    Light stars :
    The thermonuclear reaction ends with lighter elements (eg Mg).
    The synthesized elements remain gravitationally trapped inside the white dwarf
    - not relevant for cosmic nucleosynthesis -
    Massive stars (M > 6M ) :
    The whole sequence of thermonuclides takes place reactions up to iron.
    Supernova explosion ejection of synthesized elements + formation of heavy elements
    - driving force of cosmic nucleosynthesis -

    Nucleosynthesis to Fe - exothermic process
    Nucleosynthesis over Fe - endothermic reactions - up to the final stage of stars

    H
    1
    upper layers of a star                                    He
    2
    Li
    3
    Be
    4
    middle layer of the star B
    5
    C
    6
    N
    7
    O
    8
    F
    9
    Ne
    10
    Na
    11
    Mg
    12
    centrum area of star c Al
    13
    Si
    14
    P
    15
    S
    16
    Cl
    17
    Ar
    18
    K
    19
    Ca
    20
    Sc
    21
    Ti
    22
    V
    23
    Cr
    24
    Mn
    25
    Fe
    26
    Co
    27
                     
                                       
     
    Stars - alchemical cauldrons of space

    How do the heavier elements "cooked" by the star get into the surrounding universe ?
    or

    The final stages of the life of the stars

    White dwarf (if the remaining mass of the star is < 1.5 Sun)

    End of a massive star: M Supernova explosion

    Supernova explosion observed in 1054 in China Today, a Crab Nebula containing a pulsar inside - a rapidly rotating neutron star - is observed at that place
     
    H
    1
    Supernova explosion:                                  He
    2
    Li
    3
    Be
    4
    the emergence of even the heaviest elements B
    5
    C
    6
    N
    7
    O
    8
    F
    9
    Ne
    10
    Na
    11
    Mg
    12
    (incl. transurans and radioactive isotopes) Al
    13
    Si
    14
    P
    15
    S
    16
    Cl
    17
    Ar
    18
    K
    19
    Ca
    20
    Sc
    21
    Ti
    22
    V
    23
    Cr
    24
    Mn
    25
    Fe
    26
    Co
    27
    Ni
    28
    Cu
    29
    Zn
    30
    Ga
    31
    Ge
    32
    As
    33
    Se
    34
    Br
    35
    Kr
    36
    Rb
    37
    Sr
    38
    Y
    39
    Zr
    40
    Nb
    41
    Mo
    42
    Tc
    43
    Ru
    44
    Rh
    45
    Pd
    46
    Ag
    47
    Cd
    48
    In
    49
    Sn
    50
    Sb
    51
    Te
    52
    I
    53
    Xe
    54
    Cs
    55
    Ba
    56
    La ..
    Hf
    72
    Ta
    73
    W
    74
    Re
    75
    Os
    76
    Ir
    77
    Pt
    78
    Au
    79
    Hg
    80
    Tl
    81
    Pb
    82
    Bi
    83
    Mon
    84
    At
    85
    Rn
    86
    Fr
    87
    Ra
    88
    Ak ..
    Rf
    104
    Db
    105
    Sg
    106
    Bh
    107
    Hs
    108
    Mt
    109
    Ds
    110
    Rg
    111
    Uub
    112
    Uut
    113
    Uuq
    114
    Up
    115
    Uuh
    116
    New
    117
    Uuo
    118
    + other heavier nuclei + many radioactive isotopes of all nuclei
    (only stable elements and radioactive ones with only T 1/2 > 10 8 years have been preserved )
     
    The nthanoids:  La
    57
    Ce
    58
    Pr
    59
    Nd
    60
    Pm
    61
    Sm
    62
    Eu
    63
    Gd
    64
    Tb
    65
    Dy
    66
    Ho
    67
    Er
    68
    Tm
    69
    Yb
    70
    Lu
    71
    If tinoids:  Ac
    89
    Th
    90
    Pa
    91
    U
    92
    Np
    93
    Pu
    94
    Am
    95
    Cm
    96
    Bk
    97
    Cf
    98
    Es
    99
    Fm
    100
    Md
    101
    No
    102
    Lr
    103

    Fusion of neutronon stars
    Another way of creating heavier elements in space occurs with the close orbit of two neutron stars and their merging - fusion, "collision". In this process, a large amount of neutron matter is ejected, which immediately "nucleonizes" to form atomic nuclei (4.8, passage "Collisions and fusions of neutron stars"):

    This creates a large number of cores, with a relatively higher proportion of heavy elements. Due to the huge number of neutrons, the r-process of rapid repeated neutron capture by lighter nuclei takes place intensively, during which very heavy nuclei are also effectively formed - from the area around iridium, platinum, gold, to a group of uranium.

    Relative abundance of elements in nature depending on their proton (atomic) number Z, related to hydrogen Z = 1.
    Above:
    The current average representation of elements in space. Bottom: Occurrence of elements on Earth (in the Earth's crust) and terrestrial planets.
    Due to the large range of values, the relative representation of the elements (relative to hydrogen Z = 1) on the vertical axis is plotted on a logarithmic scale; however, this can optically distort a large difference in the representation of hydrogen and helium compared to heavier elements, especially in the upper graph.

    In terms of origin , all elements can be divided into 3 groups :

    General mass distribution:
             Mass: e material - particle, atomic structure
    field - distributed form of matter (quantized)
    Matter in space:

    e the observed luminous + lightless - baryonic
    non-radiant - dark (hidden) matter
                        
    c                           
               dark matter   dark energy ?
      baryonic    ?     nonbaryonic ( nonbaryonic )
    According to current estimates, it is in space :
    about 73% dark energy ; about 23% dark matter (hidden, non-radiant);
    only
    4% of ordinary matter " luminous"or absorbing, accessible to observation .

    We are dealing here with the evolution of baryon matter composed of protons, neutrons and electrons

    Evolution of matter:
    Physical stage Nuclear-chemical stage Chemical stage Biological stage
    Origin of the universe - big bang
    4 physical interactions
    Origin of fields and particles
    Gravity - structure of the universe
    Nuclear reactions of particles
    Nucleosynthesis of elements
    Expansion of elements into space
    Recombination
    - formation of atoms -
    Formation of compounds
    Hydrocarbon reactions
    Pre-biotic reactions
    Cell formation
    Evolution of organisms
    “We are all descendants of the stars! "
    Every atom of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, ... etc., in our body
    once formed inside an ancient star
    -
    (now already burnt out, partly exploded, or collapsed into a neutron star or black hole)

    Earthly destinies of elements :

    Formation of the solar system and planet Earth

    selection mechanisms
    other relative representation of elements in our nature

    Gravitational selection factor: higher proportion of heavier elements on planets

    | Helium - element of the Sun God |
    He - the second most abundant element in the universe (25%)
    Inert light gas, the gravity of the Earth will not keep it
    rare on Earth.
    First discovered not on Earth but on the Sun! -
    ( Helios = ancient Greek sun god ).
    ( P.Janssen 1868 - the spectral lines of sunlight - unknown "solar" feature)
    All helium on earth has secondary origin: originated by
    a-radioactivity uranium and thorium
    (accumulates in underground premises, along with natural gas)

    Time selection factor: all radioactive nuclei with T 1/2 <10 8 years have already decayed
    (potassium
    40 K, thorium 232 Th, uranium 235,238 U - primary radionuclides have been preserved )

    > Rare and artificial elements >
    Actinides (except thorium and uranium), especially transurans radioactive have not been preserved;
    they are produced artificially by nuclear reactions .
    Discoveries of new transurans - up to Z = 118 (ununoctium).
    Exception from the middle of Medeleev's table:
    technetium Tc 43 - does not have a stable isotope.
    All these elements are now created artificially - in nuclear reactors or accelerators.

    Cosmogenic elements
    interactions of
    cosmic rays with interstellar matter and that the earth's atmosphere, there are a number of nuclear reactions produced cosmogenic elements .

    Cosmogenic elements:
    deuterium , lithium , beryllium , boron - formed by fission of heavier nuclei by hard cosmic radiation
    Cosmogenic radionuclides:
    carbon 14 C , tritium 3 H (+ trace amount 7.10 Be, 32 P, 35 S, 36 Cl)


    Appendix 1: Black holes
    At M
    > 2 M : Complete relativistic gravitational collapse black hole

    The theorem " black hole has no hair "

    Quantum evaporation of a black hole (Hawkin 's process)

    The Black Hole is where nuclear physics ends !
    The physics of black holes is discussed in detail in Chapter 4 " Black Holes " of the book " Gravity, Black Holes and the Physics of Spacetime ".


    Appendix 2: Microphysics and cosmology
    4 types of interactions in nature :

    The speculative question :
    “What would happen if God canceled (" turned off ") different types of interactions? ”
    For a more detailed discussion, see the passage"
    4 types of interactions in nature ", chapter 5" Elementary particles ", in the treatise" Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation ".

    Relationship between microphysics and cosmology :
    Relativistic cosmology is discussed in detail in Chapter 4 " Cosmology " of the book " Gravity, Black Holes and the Physics of Spacetime ".
    Unitary theory of fields and particles is discussed in Chapter B "Unitary
    Unitary theory of fields " of the same monograph.


    Gravity, black holes and space-time physics :
    Gravity in physics General theory of relativity Geometry and topology
    Black holes Relativistic cosmology Unitary field theory
    Anthropic principle or cosmic God
    Nuclear physics and physics of ionizing radiation
    AstroNuclPhysics Nuclear Physics - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Philosophy

    Vojtech Ullmann